The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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January - March 2014, Volume 10, Issue 1
Endocrine Care

Rotariu DI, Faiyad Z., Gaivas S.,. Iliescu B.F, Poeata I

Pituitary Apoplexy Management and Conditioning Factors of Outcome

Acta Endo (Buc) 2014, 10 (1): 53-64
doi: 10.4183/aeb.2014.53

Introduction. The aim of this study is to appreciate the visual and endocrine outcome and to determine the factors that may influence the outcome of patients with pituitary apoplexy. Material and Methods. Between January 2006 and March 2012, 81 pituitary tumors were treated at “N. Oblu” Clinical Emergency Hospital in Iasi. Investigations of 22 of these cases met the criteria for pituitary apoplexy (17 cases of non-secreting pituitary adenomas and 5 cases of secreting tumors (4 GH secreting adenomas with acromegaly and 1 prolactinoma). Twenty one patients underwent surgery. The mean follow-up duration was 21 months. Results. Distribution between sexes was 1:1, with a mean age of 55.0 years. In all cases pituitary apoplexy emerged in patients with macroadenomas (>1cm). 77.27% presented decreased visual acuity, cranial nerve palsy was found in 45.45%. Visual acuity improved after surgical decompression best results being obtained in patients operated within first 7 days from onset (p=0.005); 80% recovered the CN palsy after surgery (p=0.005), with no relation to delay of surgery (p=0.26) or cavernous sinus invasion (0.095); 18.18% presented with pituitary deficiency and maintained it after surgery, the rate of new pituitary deficiency was 27.77% significantly higher in patients operated using craniotomies (p=0.001). Conclusions. Clinical apoplexy emerged in patients with macroadenomas unrelated to the tumor type. Early surgical decompression (< 7 days) and high dose corticoids represent the main therapeutic approach for obtaining good recovery of visual function. CN palsy has a good prognostic not being related to the delay of surgery. Pituitary dysfunction at presentation is irreversible and has a high occurrence after surgical decompression, requiring lifelong hormone replacement.

Keywords: pituitary apoplexy, pituitary adenoma, pituitary deficiency.

Correspondence: Daniel Ilie Rotariu MD, “N. Oblu” Emergency Hospital - Neurosurgery, No. 2 Ateneului Street, Iasi, 700309, Romania, E-mail: