The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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July - September 2018, Volume 14, Issue 3
Clinical review/Extensive clinical experience

Mizera L, Elbaum M, Daroszewski J, Bolanowski M

Cardiovascular Complications Of Acromegaly

Acta Endo (Buc) 2018, 14 (3): 365-374
doi: 10.4183/aeb.2018.365

Acromegaly is associated with increased mortality and decreased life expectancy. Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of premature mortality in patients with acromegaly, accounting for about 60% of deaths. GH and/or IGF-I exert direct cardiac effects: enhance cardiac contractility, stimulate cardiomyocyte growth, influence calcium influx in cardiomyocytes. Cardiac remodelling is influenced by hypertension and insulin resistance. Among cardiovascular risk factors arterial hypertension, reported in 35% of patients with acromegaly, ranks among most important negative prognostic factors for mortality. Hypertension plays significant role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, especially in older acromegalic patients and diastolic blood pressure is best predictive factor for cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, early and aggressive hypertension treatment is essential for prognosis in acromegaly. Other important risk factors are: valvular defects, arrhythmias, endothelial dysfunction, heart failure, lipid abnormalities and coronary artery disease. Numerous studies suggest that patients with acromegaly are under threat of arrhythmias, especially those with structural heart abnormalities. Congestive heart failure as end-stage acromegalic cardiomyopathy occurs usually in older patients, with long-term uncontrolled disease and other cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Relation between acromegaly and coronary artery disease is controversial as it seems to be connected rather with classical cardiovascular risk factors than GH and IGF-1 overexpresion.

Keywords: acromegaly, complications

Correspondence: Marek Bolanowski, Medical University, Diabetes and Isotope Therapy, Dept. of Endocrinology, Pasteura 4, 50-367, Wroclaw, Poland, E-mail: