The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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  • Perspectives

    Cvasciuc IT, Ismail W, Lansdown M

    Primary Hyperparathyroidism - Strategy for Multigland Disease in the Era of SPECT-CT

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2017 13(1): 1-6 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2017.1

    Purpose. To re-examine our clinical practice and review strategy for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with multigland disease. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 121 consecutive primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients who underwent surgery in a tertiary center between January 2010 and December 2014. Results. Of 121 patients with PHPT 87% had single gland adenoma (SGD) and 13% had multigland disease (MGD). The overall cure rate was 95.86%. MGD was more frequent in younger persons (<40y)(50% vs. 13.2%). All patients had SPECT-CT (Single Proton Emission Computerized Tomography) with 28% being SPECT-CT negative. Patients with MGD had a higher rate of persistent disease (13.33% vs. 2.83%). Specimen weight was <600mg in 75% of MGD patients. 67% of SPECT-CT negative patients had mild hypercalcemia (Calcium <2.75 mmol/L) which was more frequent in MGD patients (43% vs. 19%). Conclusions. MGD patients were more likely SPECT-CT negative (40% vs. 25.4%) and benefit from bilateral neck exploration (BNE) (74%). However, most SPECT-CT negative patients still have a single adenoma. In our series MGD was more frequent in younger patients, more likely SPECT-CT negative, often associated with mild hypercalcemia and had a higher persistence rate than SGD. BNE is the operation of choice in young, SPECT-CT negative patients. If ultrasound parathyroids suggests a single large adenoma, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy with intraoperative PTH monitoring can be considered.
  • Clinical review/Extensive clinical experience

    Cvasciuc IT, Gull S, Oprean R, Lim KH, Eatock F

    Changing Pattern of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma in a Stable UK Population

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2020 16(1): 78-85 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2020.78

    Context. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCC/PGLs) are diagnosed variously with increasing incidence and changing clinical and pathology pattern. Objective. The aim was to further characterize PCC/PGLs in a stable population. Methods. A retrospective, single institution study analysed adrenalectomies for PCC/PGLs between January 2010 - January 2019. Demographics, symptoms, blood pressure, preoperative hormones, imaging, histology, hospital stay, complications and three subgroups [based on the modality of diagnosis - incidentaloma group (IG), genetic group (GG) and symptomatic group (SG)] were noted. Results. 86 patients included IG 51 (59.3%), GG 10 (11.62%) and SG 25 patients (29.06%). Incidence was 5.30 cases/1 million population. 33.34% of the IG had a delayed diagnosis with a mean interval of 22.95 months (4- 120 months). Females presented more often with paroxysmal symptoms (PS) (p=0.011). Patients with PS and classic symptoms were younger (p=0.0087, p=0.0004) and those with PS required more inotropes postoperatively (p=0.014). SG had higher preoperative hormone levels (p=0.0048), larger tumors (p=0.0169) and more likely females. GG are younger compared with those from the IG (p=0.0001) or SG (p= 0.178). Conclusion. Majority of patients had an incidental and delayed diagnosis. If symptomatic, patients are more likely to be young females with higher hormone levels and larger tumors.
  • Endocrine Care

    Sala DT, Muresan M, Voidazan S, Cvasciuc T, Darie R, Danielopol V, Muresan S, Pascanu I

    First Day Serum Calcium And Parathyroid Hormone Levels as Predictive Factors for Safe Discharge after Thyroidectomy

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2019 15(2): 225-230 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2019.225

    Context. Permanent hypocalcemia is a rare but significant complication of thyroid surgery Objective. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy . Design. Study included 134 total patients submitted to thyroidectomy from two endocrine units (January 2015 – August 2016). Methods. We measured total serum calcium (sCa) and intact PTH (iPTH) on postoperative day one and 1 month after surgery. Results. 118 patients were women with F/M ratio of 7.3/1 and a mean age of 51.8 years. 64 patients were included in group A (iPTH <12 pg/mL) and 70 patients in group B (iPTH >12 pg/mL). sCa and hypocalcemia symptoms were correlated with iPTH, measured 24 hours after surgery. The cut-off value was for sCa 8.05 mg/dL with a sensitivity of 85.29% and a specificity of 88.0% and for iPTH 11.2 pg/mL, with a sensitivity of 82.3% and a specificity of 71.0%. SCa (< 8.05 mg/dL) was a predictive factor with a 99 (IC95%:12.86- 761.58) and iPTH (<11.2 pg/mL) with a 10.77 higher risk (CI95%: 3.83-30.30) to be associated with symptoms. Conclusion. SCa and iPTH represent good predictive factors of early and safe hospital discharge and can predict the risk of prolonged and permanent hypoparathyroidism.
  • Perspectives

    Cvasciuc IT, Fraser S, Lansdown M

    Retrosternal Goitres: A Practical Classification

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2017 13(3): 261-265 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2017.261

    Background. There is no standard definition for goitres extending below the thoracic inlet and no clear guidelines for pre-operative planning of surgery. The aim of this study is a practical classification of retrosternal goitres (RSG) based on the anatomical , radiological shape and size of the thyroid. Methods. Retrospective analysis of all thyroidectomies performed in a referral centre between January 2012 and December 2016. Patients with RSGs had a pre-operative CT scan of neck/thorax. Imaging was reviewed to establish features to predict the difficulty of delivering the goitre through the neck incision and to advise the best surgical approach. Results. 847 thyroidectomies were performed with n=98 involving RSGs. TypeA (n=47) are RSG with a shape of a “cone” or pyramid with the apex pointing down. Cervicotomy is the usual approach. TypeB (n=39) are goitres with a shape of a “pyramid’ with the apex pointing up, cervicotomy with ± manubriotomy or sternotomy ± thoracotomy maybe required. TypeC (n=6) are thyroid enlargements in the mediastinum connected by a pedicle with the thyroid in the neck. A cervical approach ± manubriotomy or sternotomy ± thoracotomy is needed. TypeD (n=6) are true intrathoracic or “forgotten” goitres. Sternotomy is indicated for thyroids in the anterior mediastinum though a thoracic approach for those located in the posterior mediastinum might be needed. Conclusion. The shape and size of goitres is important in carefully planning surgery. CT imaging with cross-sectional reconstruction should be analysed before operation. The proposed classification helps treatment planning and allows comparison of outcomes by anatomical complexity.
  • Endocrine Care

    Neagoe RM, Sala DT, Pascanu I, Voidazan S, Wang L, Lansdown M, Cvasciuc IT

    A Comparative Analysis of the Initial East European Center Experience with a Western High-volume Center for Open Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy (OMIP) as Treatment of Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2016 12(3): 297-302 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2016.297

    Objective. To compare results of treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) in two teaching hospitals (eastern and western Europe) and to establish conclusions regarding quality of surgery for PHPT in Romania. Methods. We reviewed two prospectively collected databases of patients submitted to open minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (OMIP) for symptomatic PHPT in two centers from Romania and the United Kingdom (UK). We included patients with biochemically proven PHPT and positive pre-operative localization studies. We excluded patients with negative localization studies, suspected multiglandular disease, concomitant thyroid disorders and chronic renal failure. Results. 60 patients were included, 27 in group A (Romanian cohort) and 33 in group B (UK cohort). We noted significant differences between groups in pre-operative serum calcium and phosphorus levels (p<0.5). There were no differences between groups regarding the presence of symptoms; in group A we had significantly more patients with renal calculi history (p=0.02), digestive symptoms (p=0.006) and osteitis fibrosa cystica (p=0.01). Two patients from the UK group had lithium associated hyperparathyroidism and 2 patients had genetic disease. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurement (ioPTH) was available only for group B and frozen sections were selectively used in both groups. Both the adenoma size and weights were significantly higher in group A. The median operative time was significantly longer in Romanian group (p=0.001); in this group we noted the single conversion to traditional cervicotomy (3.7%) from all studied patients. In group A we noted two patients (7.4%) with failed parathyroidectomy and persistent PHPT; the cure rate was 92.5% for Romanian group and 97% for the UK group. Conclusions. OMIP can be performed safe with a high cure rate in “small” volume endocrine centres with results comparable to western experienced endocrine centres. Romanian patients presented with more severe PHPT with more frequent end-organ damage, due probably to late diagnosis.
  • General Endocrinology

    Anderson H, Lim KH, Simpson D, Gull S, Oprean R, Lee F, Kakos C, Cvasciuc IT

    Correlation between Biochemical Features and Outcomes of Preoperative Imaging (SPECT-CT And Ultrasound) in Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2021 17(3): 323-330 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2021.323

    Background. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the third most common endocrine disorder, diagnosed by elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) in hypercalcaemia. Several biochemical factors have been described to suggest severity of disease and may be correlated with preoperative imaging. Methods. This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent parathyroidectomy over a 3-year period. Preoperative calcium, PTH, vitamin D levels, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), vitamin D, serum phosphate and US and SPECT-CT positivity was noted. Results. 176 patients underwent parathyroidectomy and these were divided into 4 groups based on preoperative calcium. Overall, 61% of patients showed concordance between imaging and operative findings. Severe hypercalcaemia was associated with higher PTH levels, lower vitamin D levels, an increased rate of abnormal ALP levels, lower phosphate, male gender and highest rate of imaging concordance. Imaging positivity was associated with severe hypercalcaemia and elevated PTH levels. Level of PTH >125 pmol/L and hypercalcaemia >2.8 mmol/L are the most accurate cut-off levels for scan positivity. Conclusion. Biochemical factors associated with severity of the disease are directly correlated with positivity of preoperative imaging while ALP and vitamin D did not influence the preoperative imaging positivity but are associated with disease adversity. Serum phosphate level independently predicted results of parathyroid US.