The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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  • Case Report

    Radojkovic D, Stojanovic M., Pesic M., Radojkovic M., Radenkovic S., Radjenovic T.P., Stevic M., Stankovic I

    Clinically “silent” giant pheochromocytoma. case report

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2013 9(1): 121-129 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2013.121

    Context. Clinically „silent“ pheochromocytomas are very rare tumors. Objective. We present a patient with incidentally discovered, asymptomatic benign pheochromocytoma and discuss its presentation and management. Conclusion. Considering the increasing incidence of adrenal incidentalomas and, therefore, pheochromocytomas too, every incidentally found adrenal mass has to be carefully examined regardless of its clinical presentation in order to prevent fatal oversight of possible secreting nature and/or malignant potential of the lesion and to ensure an adequate curable treatment.
  • Perspectives

    Koracevic G, Stojanovic M, Petrovic S, Simic D, Sakac D, Vlajkovic M, Stevic M, Kocic M, Dordevic M, Koracevic M

    Cushing’s Syndrome, a Risk Factor for Venous Thromboembolism is a Candidate for Guidelines

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2020 16(2): 123-128 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2020.123

    Objectives. The present paper aims to review important contemporary information about VTE risk in endogenous and exogenous CS, as a substantial discrepancy exists between the results of a recent meta-analysis confirming the increased risk for VTE and the absence of CS in VTE guidelines. Methods. An extensive search of relevant databases (e.g. PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus) was performed in order to establish the interconnectedness of the following terms: Cushing’s syndrome, venous thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism. Results. The analysis demonstrated that patients with CS have about ten times the risk for VTE, particularly during the first year following the diagnosis of CS. Oral glucocorticoid users (with iatrogenic CS) have a 3-fold increase in risk of VTE in comparison with non-users. The most recent 2019 meta-analysis encompassed 7142 patients with endogenous CS (including Cushing’s disease) undergoing transsphenoidal surgery or adrenalectomy, and their risk of unprovoked VTE was almost 18 times higher in comparison with a healthy population. Conclusion. Over the past 50 years considerable evidence of increased VTE risk in CS has been accumulated. It pertains to both endogenous and exogenous type of CS and has been confirmed in the vast majority, if not all the available studies, including meta-analyses. Nevertheless, official CS guidelines make no mention of CS as a VTE risk factor, even though it is important that not only physicians who treat CS, but also physicians who manage patients with suspected VTE be aware of increased VTE risk.
  • Endocrine Care

    Stojanovic SS, Arsenijevic NA, Djukic A, Djukic S, Zivancevic Simonovic S, Jovanovic M, Pejnovic N, Nikolic V, Zivanovic S, Stefanovic M, Petrovic D

    Adiponectin as a Potential Biomarker of Low Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2018 14(2): 201-207 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2018.201

    Context. Adiponectin is an abundant adipokine, which has antiinflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and vasoprotective actions, and potential antiresorptive effects on bone metabolism. It seems to be directly involved in the improvement and control of energy homeostasis, protecting bone health and predicting osteoporotic fracture risk. Objective. To examine the relationship between adiponectin level and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and low BMD, and to estimate the prognostic significance of adiponectin in osteoporosis. Design. Clinical-laboratory cross-sectional study including 120 middle-aged and elder women (average 69.18±7.56 years). Subjects and Methods. The anthropometric parameters were measured for all examinees. Lumbar spine and hip BMD, as well as body fat percentage, were measured using a Hologic DEXA scanner. In all subjects serum adiponectin concentration was measured by ELISA method. Results. The level of adiponectin was significantly positively correlated with BMD-total, BMD of the lumbar spine and BMD of the femoral neck (r=0.618, r=0.521, r=0.567; p<0.01). Levels of adiponectin and BMD are significantly lower in post-menopausal women with MetS and osteoporosis compared to patients with osteopenia (856.87±453.43 vs. 1287.32±405.21 pg/mL, p<0.01; BMD, p<0.05), and the highest values in healthy examinees. A cutoff value of adiponectin level for osteoporosis/osteopenia was 1076.22/1392.74 pg/mL. Conclusions. Post-menopausal women with MetS have significantly lower adiponectin level and low BMD compared to healthy examinees. Adiponectin may be an early, significant and independent predictor of developing osteoporosis in women with MetS, especially in postmenopausal period.
  • Case Report

    Stojanovic M, Manojlovic-Gacic E, Pekic S, Milojevic T, Miljic D, Doknic M, Nikolic Djurovic M, Jemuovic Z , Petakov M

    From Diabetes Insipidus to Sellar Xanthogranuloma – a “Yellow Brick Road” Demanding Team-Work

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2019 15(2): 247-253 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2019.247

    Xanthogranulomas are inflammatory lesions exceptionally rarely occurring in the sellar region. Sellar xanthogranulomas (SXG) result from secondary hemorrhage, infarction, inflammation or necrosis upon existing craniopharyngioma (CP), Rathke`s cleft cyst (RCC) or pituitary adenoma (PA), or represent a stage in xanthomatous hypophysitis evolution. “Pure SXG” are independent of a preexisting lesion. A 70 year old male patient, laryngeal cancer survivor, presented with central diabetes insipidus (CDI). MRI revealed an intra-suprasellar mass of uncertain origin. Transsphenoidal surgery resulted in an efficient lesion resection with maximal pituitary sparing. Pathological report has confirmed SXG without conclusive identification of preexisting sellar lesion. Age at presentation and gender were atypical for SXG. The most frequent presenting signs of SXG were absent. Most SXG are initially misdiagnosed as CP, RCC or PA. Preoperative clinical and radiological uncertainty may impact operative planning. Differentiating from CP is crucial, due to divergent operative target goals and prognosis. Intraoperative frozen section analysis could guide surgical extensiveness. Close collaboration must include endocrinologist, neuroradiologist, neurosurgeon and pathologist. Quantity and quality of provided tissue are essential for avoiding bias in pathohistological analysis of cystic or heterogenous lesions. Awareness is needed of new pathological entities in the sellar-parasellar region. SXG should be considered in differential diagnosis of CDIcausing sellar lesions.
  • General Endocrinology

    Stojanovic M, Popevic M, Pekic S, Doknic M, Miljic D, Medic-Stojanoska M, Topalov D, Stojanovic J, Milovanovic A, Petakov M, Damjanovic S , Popovic V

    Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (Igf-1) Age-Specific Reference Values for Healthy Adult Population of Serbia

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2021 17(4): 462-471 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2021.462

    Context. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is main serum surrogate marker of growth hormone (GH) secretion, used in diagnostics and treatment of GH deficiency (GHD) and acromegaly. Regional, ethnic, racial or nutritional factors obscure cross-population applicability of IGF-1 reference values. Establishment of population- and assayspecific reference values requires sizable representative cohort of healthy subjects. Subjects and Methods. In representative sample of healthy adult population of Serbia (N=1200, 21-80 years, 1:1 male:female) serum IGF-1 was analyzed by Siemens Immulite 2000 assay under uniform laboratory conditions. Upper and lower limit of reference range (5th - 95th percentile) were calculated for each of the 12 quinquennial age intervals. IGF-1 distribution was normalized and standard deviation score (SDS) calculated by Logarithmic and LMS methods. Results. IGF-1 and age correlated significantly, with most prominent decline at 21-50 years, followed by a plateau up to age of 70. Gender differences were not significant overall. Plateau in age-related IGF-1 decline was less prominent in women. Correlations of IGF-1 with body mass index (BMI) or waist to hip ratio (WHR) were insignificant. Superior IGF-1 SDS transformation was achieved with LMS method, while logarithmic method was simpler to use. Conclusions. Normative age-specific serum IGF- 1 reference values were established on a representative cohort of healthy adults in Serbia. Our results support recommendations against necessity for gender-specific or BMI- and WHR-specific reference ranges. Populationbased data serve to generate IGF-1 SDS, which is valuable in rational application of consensus guidelines, proper longitudinal follow-up, advancement in efficacy and safety and personalization of treatment targets.