The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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  • Perspectives

    Lazarus JH, Taylor PN

    Hypothyroxinaemia and Brain Development

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2016 12(1): 1-6 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2016.1

    The aim of this review is to indicate the current position on the role of thyroxine (T4) and fetal brain development with particular relevance to the human situation. Adequate maternal iodine nutrition and maternal circulating thyroxine (T4) concentrations are essential to ensure optimum T4 placental passage which in turn will ensure transport of T4 into fetal brain cells. These processes are discussed and the role of thyroid hormone transporters is considered. The emphasis on isolated maternal hypothyroxinaemia (IH) as an important factor affecting brain development is discussed from the animal experimental point of view as well as in the clinical setting. There is evidence of neurocognitive impairment as assessed by different modalities in children up to the age of 8 years and some suggestion of increased psychiatric disorder in older persons whose mothers had IH during gestation. Although international guidelines have not in general recommended thyroxine therapy for IH the recent demonstration of adverse obstetric outcomes in women with isolated maternal hypothyroxinaemia may warrant a revision of this strategy.
  • Perspectives

    Prada G

    European Call for Longevity. New Perspectives Upon Ageing

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2013 9(1): 1-10 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2013.1

    Over the last decades aging has become a major concern for both medical professionals and policy makers. European Commission has been launching a series of initiatives aimed at drawing attention to great social, political and economic importance of aging research and at finding as well as disseminating the best practices in order to attain a very important objective: to add two years of healthy live to people in Europe by 2020. Nevertheless, there is still controversy regarding the accepted age limit for older people and also concerning various aspects of aging and aging research, most important being the difficulty of correlating chronological age to biological age. A new perspective is suggested and this might help scientists and clinicians understand better the problems of old age and could facilitate targeting research and medical strategies to the most appropriate goals. Several very important projects in the field of aging, funded by European Commission, are presented and a novel approach to the specific situation of older people is offered.
  • Perspectives

    Cvasciuc IT, Ismail W, Lansdown M

    Primary Hyperparathyroidism - Strategy for Multigland Disease in the Era of SPECT-CT

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2017 13(1): 1-6 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2017.1

    Purpose. To re-examine our clinical practice and review strategy for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with multigland disease. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 121 consecutive primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients who underwent surgery in a tertiary center between January 2010 and December 2014. Results. Of 121 patients with PHPT 87% had single gland adenoma (SGD) and 13% had multigland disease (MGD). The overall cure rate was 95.86%. MGD was more frequent in younger persons (<40y)(50% vs. 13.2%). All patients had SPECT-CT (Single Proton Emission Computerized Tomography) with 28% being SPECT-CT negative. Patients with MGD had a higher rate of persistent disease (13.33% vs. 2.83%). Specimen weight was <600mg in 75% of MGD patients. 67% of SPECT-CT negative patients had mild hypercalcemia (Calcium <2.75 mmol/L) which was more frequent in MGD patients (43% vs. 19%). Conclusions. MGD patients were more likely SPECT-CT negative (40% vs. 25.4%) and benefit from bilateral neck exploration (BNE) (74%). However, most SPECT-CT negative patients still have a single adenoma. In our series MGD was more frequent in younger patients, more likely SPECT-CT negative, often associated with mild hypercalcemia and had a higher persistence rate than SGD. BNE is the operation of choice in young, SPECT-CT negative patients. If ultrasound parathyroids suggests a single large adenoma, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy with intraoperative PTH monitoring can be considered.
  • Perspectives

    Badulescu CI, Marlowe RJ, Piciu A, Buiga R, Barbos O, Bejinariu NI, Chereches G, Barbus E, Bonci EA , Piciu D

    Circulating Tumor Cells in Minimally Invasive Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma and Benign Thyroid Tumors with a Follicular Pattern: Pilot Experience

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2018 14(1): 1-10 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2018.1

    Purpose. Minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinomas (MIFCs) are uncommon; literature offers limited guidance on their natural history and management. Starting January 2015 we measured circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with MIFC (n=22) or benign thyroid tumors with follicular features (n=4). Methods. In a retrospective analysis, we assessed detectability of and serial changes in CTC, compared demographic/clinical differences between CTC-positive versus CTC-negative subgroups using Student’s t-test, and examined correlations between CTC status and serum thyroglobulin using Spearman’s test. CTCs were quantitated via immunomagnetic separation/microscopic inspection. Results. Thirteen patients (50%: 12/22 MIFC, 1/4 benign tumor) were initially CTC-positive; 3 remained CTC-positive in ≥1 subsequent measurement. CTC-positive patients had larger tumors and more frequent multifocality and vascular invasion versus CTC-negative patients (n=13). However, no tested variable differed significantly between the subgroups. After 17.2±10.5 months, neither subgroup showed evidence of disease. Significant correlation was absent (p ≥ 0.263) between CTC and Tg negativity (r = 0.243; n=13 evaluable) or initial CTC positivity and Tg positivity (r = -0.418; n=9 evaluable). Conclusions. In the studied settings, CTC measurement is feasible, has unclear clinical/outcome implications, but may provide different information versus thyroglobulin testing. Lengthier assessment is warranted in larger series.
  • Perspectives

    Zhu FF, Yang LZ

    Bioinformatic Analysis Identifies Potentially Key Differentially Expressed Genes and Pathways in Orbital Adipose Tissues of Patients with Thyroid Eye Disease

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2019 15(1): 1-8 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2019.1

    Context. Thyroid eye disease (TED), an orbital inflammatory status, generally occurred in Graves’ disease. Objective. This study aimed to acquire further insight into molecular mechanisms of TED, especially several key involved genes and pathways. Design. The microarray dataset GSE58331 including expression data for orbital adipose tissue samples, isolated from TED patients and normal controls, was downloaded from a publicly accessible Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from 23 adipose tissues of TED patients versus 20 samples from normal controls. Subjects and Methods. A protein-protein interaction network of DEGs was constructed by using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes and Cytoscape 3.6.0. Several hub genes/proteins were extracted from the proteinprotein interaction network based on connectivity degree. Furthermore, we used the iRegulon plugin of Cytoscape3.6.0 to predict the transcription factors (TFs). Results. A total of 678 DEGs (538 up- and 140 down-regulated genes) were identified in TED patients. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC), interleukin 2 (IL-2), G protein subunit gamma 3 (GNG3), CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3 (LPAR3), CXC motif chemokine ligand-8 (CXCL8), etc., were considered as the hub genes among the DEGs. There were 6 TFs predicted to be differentially expressed in regulating the DEGs related to TED. A total of 71 DEGs had been reported to be associated with TED in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. Conclusions. Through this analysis, we have identified plenty of potential biomarkers and pathways which may have an important role in the pathogenesis of TED. However, these findings require verification by more detailed future experimental studies.
  • Perspectives

    Zaaber I, Mestiri S, Marmouch H, Bel Hadj Jrad Tensaout B

    Polymorphisms in TSHR Gene and the Risk and Prognosis of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Tunisian Population

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2020 16(1): 1-8 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2020.1

    Background. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) including Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) are complex genetic diseases. TSHR is considered as candidate gene in GD. This finding prompted us to investigate the association of TSHR gene polymorphism with the risk and the prognosis of AITD in Tunisia. Methods. A total of 84 healthy controls and 91 patients with AITD (69HT and 22 GD) were genotyped for TSHR rs74067403A>G polymorphism and 134 healthy controls and 149 patients with AITD (98 HT and 51 GD) were genotyped for TSHR rs1054708 T>C polymorphism. Results. For rs1054708, we found an association between HT, AITD and the heterozygous genotype TC, the mutated genotype CC and the genotypes presented the mutated allele C (TC+CC) and with mutated allele C. The heterozygous genotype TC and the genotypes that presented the mutated allele C of rs1054708 are associated with male patients with AITD evenly the heterozygous genotype TC is associated with age of onset of disease. Conclusions. These preliminary results suggest that TSHR rs1054708 polymorphism may be a protective factor against HT and AITD. This polymorphism can affect the etiology of AITD between men and women and also by age.
  • General Endocrinology

    Alipour MR, Almasi S, Keyhanmanesh R, Aliparasti MR, Ansarin K, Feizi H

    Effect of Exogenous Ghrelin on Heme Oxygenase and Rock Isoforms Gene Expression in the Lung of Chronic Hypoxic Wistar Rats

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2012 8(1): 5-15 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2012.5

    Introduction. Induction of heme oxygenase (HO) gene expression can protect lungs from Hypoxic Pulmonary\r\nVasoconstriction (HPV). Furthermore, there is evidence that Rho-kinase (ROCK) may be involved in HPV. Studies are going on to detect the real mechanisms involved in the phenomenon. Ghrelin, a 28-amino-acid peptide, has been shown that it may protect lungs from HPV side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous ghrelin on HO and ROCK isoforms gene expression during chronic hypoxia (CH).\r\nMaterial and Method.Twenty four adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in three groups. Hypoxic rats with saline or ghrelin treatment were placed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber (O2 11%), for two weeks. Controls remained in room air. HO and ROCK isoforms gene expression was measured by Real-Time RT-PCR. Lung tissues were histologically processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for morphometric analysis.\r\nResults. Morphometric analysis showed that ghrelin reversed the hypoxia induced pulmonary artery wall thickness (P < 0.001). In hypoxic animals, the amount of HO-1 expression increased but there was suppression in HO-2 gene expression (P < 0.05). Both ROCK-1 and ROCK-2 gene expressions were diminished after two-week hypoxia. Ghrelin treatment reduced the overexpression of HO-1 (P < 0.05), but had noeffect on ROCK gene expression.\r\nConclusion. Ghrelin by decreasing the expression of HO-1 and HO-2 in hypoxic animals may be involved in an adaptation\r\nmechanism during CH. However, ghrelin did not change ROCK isoforms gene expression, thus it could not affect HPV in this way. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to justify the protective roles of ghrelin for HPV.
  • General Endocrinology

    Malutan A, Drugan T, Georgescu C, Ciortea R, Bucuri C, Bobric A, Rada MP, Mihu D

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Serum Levels in Women with Advanced Endometriosis

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2016 12(1): 7-13 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2016.7

    Context. Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease, characterized by ectopic deposits of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity, and it is associated with pelvic pain and infertility, with an important impact on the quality of life. At this point there is a controversy regarding the etiology and pathophysiology of endometriosis and it seems that pro-angiogenic growth factors might be involved, but their role is not completely understood. Objective. To evaluate the serum concentration of the main growth factors in patients with diagnosed endometriosis compared to healthy controls. S ubjects and Methods. A total of 157 women were divided into two study groups (Group I – endometriosis; Group 2 – healthy women). Serum levels of VEGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, b-FGF, EGF, and HGF were measured with Human Multiplex Cytokine Panels. Results. VEGF serum levels were significantly lower in women with endometriosis compared to controls (1.924±0.145 compared to 1.806±0.078 pg/mL, p<0.001). Serum levels of GM-CSF, b-FGF, EGF, and HGF respectively did not differ significantly between patients with endometriosis and healthy controls. G-CSF had a very low detection rate. Conclusions. The present study showed that VEGF serum levels are significantly lower in endometriosis patients compared to healthy controls, indicating a possible role in endometriosis pathogenesis.
  • General Endocrinology

    Gurzu IL, Mitu F, Gorgan LD, Vata LG, Gurzu B, Petris OR

    The Anti-Inflammatory Efect of Pulmonary Renin Angiotensin System Blockade

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2015 11(1): 7-12 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2015.7

    Introduction. Even if the last decade brings new information about the existence of the local pulmonary renin-angiotensin system (RAS), published results about its involvement in the progression of various pulmonary diseases remain contradictory. Methods. Using an experimental model of pulmonary allergic disease induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization we studied effects of intratracheal (i.t.) administrated AT1 receptor blocker losartan (LOS) on inflammatory processes supposed to be mediated by pulmonary RAS. Alterations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cellularity and variations of airway reactivity from OVA sensitized and challenged rats after LOS or vehicle i.t. instillation were comparatively assessed. Results. Blocking of RAS decreased the total BALF cellularity and polymorphonuclear cell count. LOS instillation also reduced the increases in specific airway resistance (sRaw) induced by inhalation of allergen (with 20%) or acetylcholine (with at least 15%). Conclusions. Our data suggest that expressly blocking of local RAS by i.t. administration of LOS have inhibitory effects on allergen - induced lung inflammation and sustain the participation of pulmonary RAS, activated by local or systemic factors, in lung diseases.
  • General Endocrinology

    Yildirim AB, Ozdamar S, Kaymak E

    The Effects of Maternal Hypothyroidism on the Immunoreactivity of Cytochrome P450 Aromatase in the Postnatal Rat Testicles

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2017 13(1): 7-16 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2017.7

    Introduction. Abnormal thyroid function affect spermato-genesis and male infertility. For men, the aromatase deficiency can cause infertility. In this study, the aim is to investigate the effect of maternal hypothyroidism on offspring testicular morphology and cytochrome-P450- aromatase (P450arom) immunoreactivity. Materials and Methods. Eighteen Wistar albino pregnant rats were divided into three groups, namely A, B and K groups. Hypothyroidism was induced by adding 0.01% of propyl thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water. Hypothyroid mothers, group A: given PTU for 21 days during pregnancy, group B: given PTU for 21 days prior to pregnancy; control mothers, group K, given only water. Hypothyroid and control group mothers’ pups at postnatal day (PND) 15 and 60 were sacrificed. We determined immunoreactivity intensity of P450arom and mRNA levels by RT-PCR performed in the testis tissues. ELISA method was used for thyroid function tests for T3, T4 and TSH. Structure of seminiferous tubule was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results. It was seen that the aromatase expression in 15-day-old maternal hypothyroid groups was similar to the one in the control group while there was a decline in the aromatase expression of 60-day-old groups. As for mRNA, it was determined that it had a tendency to increase over time in all groups but this increase was not significant. The tubule diameter and Johnsen’s Testicular Biopsy Score diminished in all hypothyroid groups in comparison to the control group. Conclusion. The changes that occur in the early period of testis development due to maternal hypothyroidism negatively affect testis development in the next stages of life. This situation leads to a decline in aromatase expression in the following years.