The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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January - March 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1
Case Series

Agrawal SS, Chakraborty PP, Sinha A, Maiti A, Chakraborty M

Adrenal Histoplasmosis: an Eastern Indian Perspective

Acta Endo (Buc) 2022, 18 (1): 106-114
doi: 10.4183/aeb.2022.106

Context. The clinical presentation of histoplasmosis is varied. Due to its propensity for adrenal involvement, histoplasmosis is an important differential diagnosis in any patient presenting with adrenal mass, bilateral in particular. Objective. Data on clinical presentation, pattern of adrenal involvement, radiological appearance and long-term follow-up of adrenal histoplasmosis are relatively sparse; hence we looked at it. Design. This record based single-centre retrospective study was conducted in one of the tertiary care hospitals, situated in eastern India catering the Gangetic delta. Subjects and methods. Data on demographic characters, presenting manifestations, biochemical & hormonal parameters and radiological appearance of confirmed adrenal histoplasmosis cases (n=9), admitted between 2015-2019 have been retrieved. The treatment outcome and condition of patients after 1-4 years of followup has also been discussed. Results. Four out of the nine (44.4%) patients had predisposing immunocompromised conditions in the form of diabetes and/or chronic alcoholism while rest were immunocompetent. Seven out of nine patients (77.8 %) had signs and symptoms suggestive of adrenal insufficiency, while two (22.2%) presented with only pyrexia of unknown origin. All of them had bilateral adrenal mass, though the radiologically appearances were different. All patients received anti-fungal agents with/without hydrocortisone and/or fludrocortisone. One patient died (11.1%), while majority responded favourably to treatment. Adrenocortical function did not recover completely. Conclusions. The possibility of adrenal histoplasmosis should always be considered in patients presenting with bilateral adrenal mass, irrespective of adrenal morphology. Treatment is effective, but many of them require supplemental hydrocortisone for quite a long period, if not lifelong. Mineralocorticoid deficiency, however, is not permanent.

Keywords: Adrenal histoplasmosis, Primary adrenal insufficiency, Subclinical adrenal insufficiency, Bilateral adrenal mass.

Correspondence: Partha Pratim Chakraborty MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism; MCH Building 4th floor\ Medical College, Kolkata; 88 College Street, West Bengal, India, E-mail: