The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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January - March 2023, Volume 19, Issue 1

Macut D, Opalic M, Popovic B, Ognjanovic S, Bjekic-Macut J, Livadas S, Petrovic T, Hrncic D, Stanojlovic O, Vojnovic Milutinovic D, Micic D , Mastorakos G

The Effects of Endocrine Disruptors on Female Gonadal Axis: an Update

Acta Endo (Buc) 2023, 19 (1): 81-86
doi: 10.4183/aeb.2023.81

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are considered to have an impact on the function of reproductive axis at different levels as well on reproductive organs in both sexes. Complexity of female reproductive system influenced with various stressors including EDs lead to morphological and functional alterations. This is resulting in modulation of neuroendocrine regulation with consequent developmental irregularities and derangements, causative infertility, endometriosis as well as premature ovarian insufficiency or polycystic ovary syndrome. A number of experimental clues was obtained on female animal models using various EDs such as synthetic estrogens and phytoestrogens, neurotransmitters, pesticides or various chemicals. These substances lead towards consequent derangement of the neuroendocrine control of reproduction from early phases of reproductive development towards different phases of adult reproductive period. This text will address some novel insights into the effects of EDs on neuroendocrine regulation of gonadal axis, effects on ovaries as well on endometrium during implantation period.

Keywords: endocrine disruptors, female reproduction, infertility, neuroendocrine regulation, ovary, endometrium, implantation.

Correspondence: Professor Djuro Macut MD, PhD, University of Belgrade Faculty of Medicine, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Diseases of Metabolism, Dr Subotica 13, Beograd, 11000, Serbia, E-mail: