The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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  • General Endocrinology

    Malutan A, Drugan T, Georgescu C, Ciortea R, Bucuri C, Bobric A, Rada MP, Mihu D

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Serum Levels in Women with Advanced Endometriosis

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2016 12(1): 7-13 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2016.7

    Context. Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease, characterized by ectopic deposits of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity, and it is associated with pelvic pain and infertility, with an important impact on the quality of life. At this point there is a controversy regarding the etiology and pathophysiology of endometriosis and it seems that pro-angiogenic growth factors might be involved, but their role is not completely understood. Objective. To evaluate the serum concentration of the main growth factors in patients with diagnosed endometriosis compared to healthy controls. S ubjects and Methods. A total of 157 women were divided into two study groups (Group I – endometriosis; Group 2 – healthy women). Serum levels of VEGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, b-FGF, EGF, and HGF were measured with Human Multiplex Cytokine Panels. Results. VEGF serum levels were significantly lower in women with endometriosis compared to controls (1.924±0.145 compared to 1.806±0.078 pg/mL, p<0.001). Serum levels of GM-CSF, b-FGF, EGF, and HGF respectively did not differ significantly between patients with endometriosis and healthy controls. G-CSF had a very low detection rate. Conclusions. The present study showed that VEGF serum levels are significantly lower in endometriosis patients compared to healthy controls, indicating a possible role in endometriosis pathogenesis.
  • General Endocrinology

    Georgescu C, Georgescu B, Mihu D, Porumb C, Duncea I

    Relationships of Umbilical and Maternal Adiponectin, Resistin and Osteoprotegerin to Maternaland Newborn Anthropometric Characteristics

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2011 7(1): 11-21 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2011.11

    Introduction. Adiponectin, resistin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are cytokines expressed in the adipose tissue. Pregnancy is associated with gradually increased maternal\r\nlevels of these molecules, also detected in significant amounts in umbilical cord blood serum samples.\r\nAim, patients and methods. To establish the relationships of maternal and umbilical adiponectin, resistin and OPG levels to both maternal and fetal anthropometric measurements and insulin sensitivity, 28 mother-newborn pairs were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected in a fasting state, after delivery, and serum insulin, C-peptide, sex hormone-binding globulin, adipocytokines, OPG and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured.\r\nResults. Compared to maternal values, umbilical serum adiponectin levels were about 3-fold higher; additionally, significantly higher resistin and lower OPG levels were\r\nobserved. Stratification of umbilical and maternal adiponectin levels according to tertiles of birth body weight demonstrated significantly lower maternal adiponectin\r\nlevels by tertiles of neonatal body weight. No relationships were noticed between infant birth weight and maternal or umbilical serum resistin and OPG, respectively. Umbilical resistin was significantly associated to both\r\nmaternal resistin and umbilical adiponectin. Multiple regression analysis showed that maternal BMI, umbilical insulin, C-peptide and resistin explained 71.83% of umbilical serum adiponectin variability. Umbilical resistin was independently predicted by umbilical adiponectin, umbilical C-peptide and maternal BMI, and the model explained 81.49% of umbilical resistin levels.\r\nConclusions. In human, umbilical serum adiponectin and resistin levels are significantly higher compared to adults. These adipokines may mediate the effects of maternal body mass on fetal development. The biology of the\r\nOPG/RANKL cytokine system in fetuses and newborns needs further research.
  • Endocrine Care

    Mihu D, Georgescu C, Mihu C, Costin N, Blaga L, Pop R

    High maternal serum leptin and interleukin-6 levels in pre-eclampsia and relationships with clinical and metabolical parameters of disease severity and pregnancy outcome

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2009 5(1): 49-60 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2009.49

    Background. The pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia involves inflammation, endothelial\r\ndysfunction and enhanced oxidative stress. Interleukin (IL)-6 is a major pro-inflammatory\r\ncytokine, while leptin is released in large amounts by the adipose tissue, but also by placenta.\r\nAim. The present study aims to evaluate total maternal serum leptin and IL-6 levels in\r\npre-eclampsia compared to normal pregnancy and non-pregnant status.\r\nMethods. We enrolled 65 women in a transversal study; pre-eclampsia was diagnosed\r\nin 25 (group 1), 25 women had a normal pregnancy (group 2), while in 15 pregnancy was\r\nexcluded. Groups were matched for chronological and gestational age and body mass index\r\n(BMI) accordingly. Total serum leptin and serum IL-6 were determined using ELISA, after\r\nan overnight fasting period of at least 12 hours.\r\nResults. Both leptin and IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher in women in the\r\nthird trimester of pregnancy developing pre-eclampsia compared to normotensive pregnant\r\nwomen (p=0.001). Normal pregnancy was characterized by increased serum leptin levels\r\n(p=0.001) as well as increased IL-6 levels (p=0.001) in comparison to non-pregnant status.\r\nIn women with pre-eclampsia, leptin was positively and significantly correlated with\r\ndiastolic blood pressure (r=0.45, p=0.02), proteinuria (r=0.48, p=0.01) and uric acid values\r\n(r=0.39, p=0.04) and inversely related to HDL cholesterol levels (r=-0.64, p=0.0001).\r\nLikewise, IL-6 was positively related to systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.41,\r\np=0.008 and r=0.60, p=0.00003, respectively), proteinuria (r=0.38, p=0.01) and uric acid\r\nvalues (r=0.43, p=0.004). However, leptin had no correlation with pregnancy outcome in\r\nwomen with or without pre-eclampsia. In contrast, IL-6 was negatively correlated with both\r\nfetal birth at weight (r=-0.35, p=0.02) and Apgar score (r=-0.38, p=0.01).\r\nConclusions. In conclusion pre-eclampsia associates significantly increased serum\r\nleptin concentrations and IL-6 production compared to normal pregnancy. In contrast to\r\nleptin, IL-6 may predict pregnancy outcome (fetal birth weight and Apgar score) in women\r\nwith pre-eclampsia.
  • Notes & Comments

    Malutan A, Costin N., Duncea I., Georgescu Pepene C.E., Mihu D., Rada MP

    Interleukin-8 and vasomotor symptoms in natural and surgically induced menopause

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2013 9(1): 133-144 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2013.133

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in pre- and postmenopausal women and in patients with surgically-induced menopause, and the relationship between IL-8 and vasomotor symptoms. Material and Method. 175 women were enrolled and were divided into 5 groups (I – Fertile women; II – Pre- and perimenopausal women; III – Postmenopausal women; IV – Surgically-induced menopause; V – Chronic inflammation). Multiplex cytokine kits were used to evaluate serum levels of interleukin-8. We determined the serum levels of the follicle stimulating hormone, of the luteinizing hormone, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate using sandwich ELISA. The severity of the vasomotor symptoms was evaluated according to FDA guidelines. Results. Serum concentration of IL-8 in women with natural menopause (233.0±226.5 pg/ml; p<0.001) and in women with surgically-induced menopause (148.0±162.0 pg/ml; p=0.045) is significantly higher than in women of reproductive age (84.88±82.32 pg/ml). Serum levels of IL-8 in premenopausal women, postmenopausal women, and in women with surgically-induced menopause, respectively, with severe and moderate hot flashes, on one hand (174.8±90.94 pg/ml, 369.3±194.2 pg/ml, respectively 274.1±146.3 pg/ml), is significantly higher than in women without vasomotor symptoms or with mild hot flashes, on the other hand (19.97±22.15 pg/ml, 28.66±35.72 pg/ml, respectively 28.94±37.68 pg/ml; p<0.001). Serum levels of IL-8 are significantly higher in women of reproductive age with chronic inflammatory pathology (152.3±121.0 pg/ml) than in women without such pathology (84.88±82.32 pg/ml; p=0.02). Conclusions. IL-8 is significantly higher in postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms than in women without vasomotor symptoms. In the postmenopausal group, the serum levels of IL-8 are similar to those in women with chronic inflammatory pathology. IL-8 could be a key factor in occurrence of hot flashes in menopause and could be associated with peripheral vasodilatation in these women.
  • General Endocrinology

    Malutan AM, Costin N, Ciortea R, Dragos C.M, Mihu D, Dorin G

    Bone Mineral Density and Proinflamatory Cytokines (IL-1ß and TNFa) in Menopause

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2014 10(2): 169-180 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2014.169

    Background. Osteoporosis has a high incidence after menopause, and at the same time the relationship between menopausal oestrogen deprivation and proinflammatory status is considered to be involved in postmenopausal bone turnover. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of IL-1β and of the TNFα in pre and postmenopausal women, as well as to investigate the relationship between these cytokines and bone mineral density. Design. A case-control study was performed during a period of 12 months. Subjects and Methods. The study included 150 women divided into 4 study groups. Serum levels of IL-1β and TNFα were determined using multiplex cytokine kits. BMD was measured by DXA at the level of the hip and lumbar spine. Results. Serum concentration of IL-1β is significantly higher in natural and surgically induced menopausal women, compared to women in the control group. Serum levels of TNFα in postmenopausal women and with surgically induced menopause are significantly higher than in fertile and premenopausal women. Serum levels of IL-1β are significantly higher in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis compared to patients with normal BMD values. We found a negative correlation between serum levels of IL-1β, TNFα and BMD in pre and postmenopausal women, and in women with surgically induced menopause. Conclusions. Serum levels of IL- 1β and TNFα are significantly higher in menopausal women compared to fertile women. IL-1β is significantly higher in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis than in women with normal BMD values, and IL-1β and TNFα associate negatively with BMD in pre and postmenopausal women, as well as in women with surgically induced menopause.
  • Endocrine Care

    Georgescu C, Ilie I, Paul A, Mihu D, Duncea I, Mocanu T, Duncea I

    Value of quantitative heel and proximal phalanges ultrasonography versus dual X-ray absorptiometry in women aged 24-80 years

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2008 4(3): 297-308 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2008.297

    Despite several attempts to establish the role of QUS in clinical practice, issues such as definition of osteoporosis based on QUS, screening strategy and therapy efficacy for patients identified by QUS as having high risk of fracture remain a matter of debate. The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic agreement between two QUS techniques (heel QUS and proximal phalanges QUS) and DXA in an unselected population of Romanian women aged 24- 80 years, as well as to offer cut-off levels for QUS to distinct between women with or without osteoporosis identified by DXA. In women measured by both DXA and calcaneus QUS (c- QUS), bone mineral density (BMD) moderately correlated with stiffness index (SI) (L1-L4: r=+0.51, p<0.001; femoral neck: r=+0.53, p<0.001; hip: r=+0.57, p<0.001), while in women examined by both DXA and phalanx QUS (ph-QUS), BMD was positively related to amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS) (L1-L4: r=+0.47, p<0.001; femoral neck: r=+0.50, p<0.001; hip: r=+0.38, p<0.001) and ultrasound bone profile index (UBPI) (L1-L4: r=+0.44, p<0.001; femoral neck: r=+0.50, p<0.001; hip: r=+0.38, p<0.001). At a T-score cutoff level of -2.5SD, the high specificity but low sensitivity suggests a low false positive rate of c-QUS as a diagnostic test; still, several patients with the disease may not be correctly diagnosed. At the same cut-off level, ph-QUS showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity. Diagnostic agreement between DXA and QUS was poor, with k-scores ranging from 0.33 to 0.39 for c-QUS and from 0.14 to 0.29 for ph-QUS, respectively. Lowering c-QUS T-score cutoff for lumbar spine osteoporosis screening to -1.5SD and ph-QUS T-score cut-off to -1.9SD, respectively, improved sensitivity and had a minor effect on diagnostic agreement. Regardless of the evaluated site, neither c-QUS nor ph-QUS does represent an adequate predictor of BMD in Romanian women. Changing the diagnostic T-score threshold from -2.5 SD to -1.5 SD and -1.9 SD in subjects examined by c-QUS or ph-QUS, respectively, is followed by improved sensitivity and diagnostic agreement in the identification of patients with vertebral osteoporosis. Cut-off values may allow QUS to be used as a screening tool for spine and femur osteoporosis.
  • General Endocrinology

    Ciortea R, Mihu D, Georgescu CE, Borda MI, Ungur RA, Irsay L, Ciortea V

    Influence of the Association of Melatonin and Estrogens on Bone Turnover Markers in Ovariectomised Rats

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2015 11(4): 425-430 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2015.425

    Introduction. Bone formation takes place through a continuous remodeling process, which involves the resorption of old bone by osteoclasts and the formation of new bone tissue by osteoblasts, melatonin contributing to the hormonal modulation of the action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Aim. The aim of this study is to evidence the influence of melatonin administered in combination with estrogen on bone turnover markers in female Wistar rats with bilateral surgical ovariectomy. Material and method. The study was performed on 40 female Wistar rats with a weight of 160-200 g, which underwent bilateral surgical ovariectomy. At 14 days postovariectomy, hormone replacement therapy (estradiol benzoate – E2b – 10 μg/day) and combined estrogen (estradiol benzoate – E2b – 10 μg/day) and melatonin (added to the drinking water in a concentration of 25 μg/mL or 50 μg/mL – ethanol concentration 0.01%) – treatment were initiated over a period of 12 consecutive weeks. Subsequently, venous blood was collected for the determination of serum osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I levels. Results. Melatonin administered in combination with estrogen to ovariectomized female rats induces an increase in serum osteoalcin levels (statistically significant differences between all four groups p=0.001) and a decrease in serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I levels (statistically significant differences between group I and the other three groups p=0.005; p=0.001; p=0.001 and between group II and group IV p=0.007). The influence on bone formation and resorption markers depends on the administered melatonin dose and on the post-ovariectomy estradiol level. Conclusions. Melatonin potentiates the effects of estradiol on bone in ovariectomized rats.