The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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  • Case Series

    Yazan CD, Yavuz DG

    Efficacy of Double Filtration Plasmapheresis Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Severe Hypertriglyceridemia

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2023 19(1): 125-130 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2023.125

    Background and aim. Hypertriglyceridemia is one of the leading causes of acute pancreatitis and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Today the recommended treatment options are fasting, hydration, if necessary antibiotics and there is not a standard recommendation to decrease triglycerides rapidly. Double Fıltratıon Plasmapheresis (DFPP) may be an option to decrease triglycerides rapidly but its effect on the disease course is unknown. Method. In the present study, we present results of four acute pancreatitis cases associated with hypertriglyceridemia treated with DFPP. All of the patients were diagnosed as acute pancreatitis at emergency room and no complications were observed in sessions. A 76.3% reduction in triglyceride levels was observed in one or two treatment sessions. Results and conclusion. DFPP is an effective and safe option to decrease triglyceride levels rapidly but further research is needed to show the effect on mortality and morbidity.
  • General Endocrinology

    Kaygusuz E, Cetiner H, Yavuz H, Cesur S, Yozgatligil C, Ayas S

    Immunohistochemical Expressions of Receptors for Luteinizing Hormone/Human Chorionic Gonadotropic Hormone and for Sex Steroid Hormones in Pregnant Fallopian Tubes

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2014 10(2): 181-194 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2014.181

    Background. There is no immunohistochemical study to show luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in the pregnant Fallopian tubes (FT). Objective. To study LHR, ER, PR expression in FT containing an ectopic pregnancy (EP) and during the menstrual phase. Design. Thirty FT were obtained from women diagnosed with EP and twenty FT collected by hysterectomy performed for benign diseases not affecting the tubes were included in this study. Assessment of immunohistochemical expression staining LHR, ER, PR in epithelium, smooth muscle cell and blood vessel endothelium in FT containing an EP and during the different phases of menstrual cycle. Results. In ectopic pregnancy group we found LHR expression in epithelium in 30 cases, muscle cell in 28 cases, and endothelium in 9 cases in FT. In menstrual cycle group we noted LHR expression in FT in epithelium in all cases, muscle cell in 4 cases. Conclusion. There is a significant difference in the proportions of the existence of LH receptor immunostaining in the muscle cells for ectopic pregnancy group as compared to the menstrual cycle groups (p < 0.001). Our findings may suggest that the women who have increased LH receptors on muscle cells in Fallopian tubes are at increased risk for having external pregnancy.
  • Endocrine Care

    Gunhan HG, Elbasan O, Imre E, Gogas Yavuz D

    Lipodystrophy Frequency According to Insulin Treatment Regimen in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: is Insulin Injection Frequency Matters in Analog Insulin Era?

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2022 18(2): 202-208 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2022.202

    Objectives. We aimed to determine lipodystrophy frequency according to insulin treatment regimen and insulin injection frequency in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. A total of 345 type 2 diabetic patients under insulin treatment for at least one year were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were examined for presence of lipodystrophy, insulin injection frequency and dosage. Lipodystrophy was evaluated with visual inspection and palpation of all injection sites. Patients were evaluated into three categories according to daily insulin dose requirement: Group 1= Standard-dose insulin users 0.6 U/ kg/day; Group 2= Medium-dose insulin users 0.61-1.9 U/kg/ day, Group 3= High-dose insulin users ≥2 U/kg/day. Results. Lipodystrophy was seen in 28% of the patients. Lipodystrophy was significantly higher in group 3. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of lipodystrophy size. Duration of insulin treatment, daily total insulin dose, daily insulin dose per weight and number of daily insulin injections were significantly higher in the group with lipodystrophy. Daily injection number of long-acting, rapidly-acting analog and total insulin injections were significantly higher in group 3 than group 1 and 2. Number of daily insulin injections and lipodystrophy frequency were significantly higher in basalbolus insulin user group. Multivariate analysis showed that insulin injection frequency is the independent risk factor for lipodystrophy. Conclusion. Lipodystrophy is still a clinical problem in patients with high-dose insulin requirement and frequent insulin injections. Reducing daily insulin requirement and daily number of injections should be given priority in the management of patients to prevent the development of lipodystrophy.
  • Editorial

    Elbasan O, Yavuz DG

    Refractory Hypothyroidism to Levothyroxine Treatment: Five Cases of Pseudomalabsorption

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2020 16(3): 339-345 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2020.339

    Context. A persistently elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is a common clinical problem in primary hypothyroidism patients treated with levothyroxine (LT4). “Pseudomalabsorption”, which is characterized by poor adherence,should be considered in cases of refractory hypothyroidism after excluding other causes, such as malabsorption. Objective. We reviewed the features of the patients with persistently elevated TSH despite high-dose LT4 therapy. Design. Symptom evaluation, medications, comorbid diseases and physical examination features of five patients who applied to our outpatient clinic between 2016- 2019 and diagnosed with LT4 pseudomalabsorption were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects and methods. The LT4 loading test was performed with an oral dose of 1,000 μg LT4. Demographic parameters, BMI, thyroid function tests, laboratory parameters for malabsorption were recorded. Results. We observed at least two-fold increase of free thyroxine levels during the test, which was considered pseudomalabsorption. Euthyroidism was achieved in two patients by increasing the LT4 dosage and in one patient with a change in the preparation. TSH decreased significantly after being informed about compliance in one patient. Another one was given LT4 twice weekly, but TSH remained elevated because of nonadherence. Conclusion. The LT4 loading/absorption test is a valuable tool to confirm the diagnosis of pseudomalabsorption. Informing patients, changing the preparation, increasing the dose, supervised intake of daily/weekly LT4 forms are treatment options for managing these cases.
  • General Endocrinology

    Yavuz DG, Temizkan S, Yazici D

    Serum Carboxymethyl-Lysine and Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Hyperthyroid and Hypothyroid Patients

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2022 18(4): 436-441 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2022.436

    Purpose. The formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are enhanced with increased oxidative stress and inflammatory conditions. A hyperthyroid and hypothyroid state is associated with oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate skin AGE deposition, serum carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), and serum soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE) levels in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients. Methods. A total of 203 subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. After excluding diabetes mellitus, 103 newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients, 50 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients, and 50 control (euthyroid) subjects were enrolled. All tests were done before beginning the appropriate treatment. Accumulated AGEs in the skin collagen were measured by skin autofluorescence (SAF) using an AGE Reader. Results. SAF measurements were 1.82 ± 0.04, 1.80 ± 0.40, and 1.63 ± 0.30 arbitrary units for the hypothyroid, hyperthyroid, and euthyroid groups, respectively (p = 0.04). Serum CML levels were 8.2 ± 2.8, 10.2 ± 2.0, and 8.0 ± 3.3 ng/mL for the hypothyroid, hyperthyroid, and euthyroid groups, respectively (p = 0.01). sRAGE levels were similar between the groups. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and SAF measurements were positively correlated (r = 0.25, p = 0.02) in the hypothyroid group and negatively correlated in the hyperthyroid group (r = -0.36, p = 0.04). There was no correlation between CML and sRAGE levels. Conclusion. SAF measurements are increased in both hypo- and hyperthyroid normoglycemic patients. Serum CML levels are increased in hyperthyroid patients. Hypo and hyperthyroid states might be associated with acceleration of AGE accumulation and may have a long term effect on metabolic memory.