The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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  • General Endocrinology

    Keshavarzi Z, Mohebbati R, Mohammadzadeh N, Alikhani V

    The Protective Role of Estradiol and Progesterone in Male Rats, Following Gastric Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2018 14(1): 30-35 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2018.30

    Background and Aim. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury frequently occurs in different situations. Female sex hormones have a protective function. The purpose of this study was to determine the function of female sexual hormones on the gastric damage induced by I/R in male rats. Methods. Forty (40) Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: intact, ischemia- reperfusion (IR), IR + estradiol (1mg/kg), IR + progesterone (16 mg / kg) and IR + combination of estradiol (1mg / kg) and progesterone (16 mg/ kg). Before the onset of ischemia and before reperfusion all treatments were done by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. After animal anesthesia and laparotomy, celiac artery was occluded for 30 minutes and then circulation was established for 24 hours. Results expressed as mean ± SEM and P <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. The Glutathione (GSH) concentration significantly decreased after induction of gastric IR (P<0.001). Estradiol (P<0.001) and combined estradiol and progesterone (P<0.001) significantly increased GSH levels. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration significantly increased after induction of gastric IR (P<0.001). Different treatments significantly reduced MPO levels (P<0.001). The gastric acid concentration significantly increased after induction of gastric IR (P<0.001). Treatment with estradiol, progesterone (P<0.05) and combined estradiol and progesterone (P<0.01) significantly reduced gastric acid levels. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration decreased after induction of gastric IR. The SOD levels were not significant. Conclusion. These data suggested that female sexual steroids have a therapeutic effect on gastrointestinal ischemic disorders by reduction of MPO and gastric acid, and increasing gastric GSH & SOD levels following gastric IR.
  • General Endocrinology

    Aioanei CS, Ilies RF, Bala C, Petrisor MF, Porojan MD, Popp RA, Catana A

    The Role of Adiponectin and Toll-Like Receptor 4 Gene Polymorphisms on Non-Proliferative Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. A Case control Study in Romanian Caucasians Patients

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2019 15(1): 32-38 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2019.32

    Context. Persistent inflammation and impaired neovascularization are important contributors to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Gene polymorphisms of adiponectin (APN) were demonstrated to have an important role on the plasma level and activity of adiponectin. APN has anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic properties. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) is a critical mediator of innate immunity. Polymorphisms in TLR-4 gene were shown to be associated with impaired inflammatory response in diabetes. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of +276G>T variant of APN gene and Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile of TLR-4 gene variants in relationship with T2DM and DR in an Eastern European population group. Design. The distribution of the mutant alleles in 198 T2DM patients with DR and 200 non-T2DM controls was examined. Genomic DNA from T2DM patients and healthy controls genotyped through the use of PCR-RFPL assay. Results. Genotype and allele frequencies of the Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms differed between T2DM patients and non diabetic subjects (P<0.001). Moreover, the presence of the minor alleles of these polymorphisms were significantly identified as protective factors against T2DM, under a dominant model of Fisher’s exact test (χ2=4.988, phi=0.745, OR=0.767, 95% CI=0.602-0.867, P<0.001; respectively χ2=5.254, phi=0.820, OR=0.487, 95% CI=0.211- 0.648, P<0.001). Genotype analysis for the adiponectin 276G>T gene polymorphism yielded no significant association with T2DM, but revealed a borderline significance for the association with DR (χ2=5.632, phi=0.423, OR =1.101, 95% CI=0.887-1.203, P=0.009). Conclusions. We found an association between the TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and protection for DR. The APN genetic polymorphism is not associated with T2DM.
  • General Endocrinology

    Wen F, Yang Y, Sun C, Fang H, Nie L, Li L, Liu Y, Yang Z

    Resistin Inhibits Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion through miR-494 by Target on STXBP5

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2017 13(1): 32-39 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2017.32

    Aims. Resistin has been reported to impair the pancreatic beta cells and associated with insulin resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenously produced non-coding ribonucleotides that bind mRNAs and function mainly as negative regulators in mammals. MiRNAs have been implicated in many diseases, including insulin resistance and diabetes. A considerable body of evidence has indicated an important function for miRNAs in insulin secretion. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of miR-494 in the reductions in insulin secretion attributable to resistin. Methods. Insulin secretion was determined by ELISA, and expressions of genes were identified using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) or Western blot analysis. Results. Insulin secretion was significantly reduced by resistin. Overexpression of miR-494 inhibited insulin secretion both in diet culture and high glucose medium in MIN6 cell lines. MiR-494 down-regulated the protein level of STXBP5 by pairing with sites in the 3′UTR. Conclusion. miR-494 is involved in the insulin secretion regulated by resistin via its effects on STXBP5 in MIN6 cells.
  • Endocrine Care

    Grigorie D, Sucaliuc A, Ivan M, Neacsu E, Popa O, Diaconescu A

    High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in 1048 Romanian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2008 4(1): 33-45 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2008.33

    Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common medical problems worldwide as they\r\nare quite prevalent in both healthy adults and individuals with osteoporosis, hospitalized patients\r\nand free-living and institutionalized elderly. The lack of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD)\r\nassays standardization, variability of reference population, and the use of different cut-off points\r\nhave produced quite different prevalence reports from epidemiological studies.\r\nWe investigated the vitamin D status (deficiency, insufficiency, sufficiency) in 1048\r\nRomanian postmenopausal women with osteoporosis referred to our clinic for diagnosis and\r\ntreatment in the last three years. Most patients were untreated with osteoporosis drugs and nonsupplemented\r\nwith vitamin D. In our country dietary sources of vitamin D are scarce and there\r\nis no fortification of food with vitamin D. We found a high prevalence of both vitamin D\r\ndeficiency (25OHD < 10 ng/mL) - 22.23% and insufficiency (25OHD=10-30 ng/mL) - 61.26%.\r\nOur study also revealed a high prevalence of low vitamin D when using other cut-offs as reported\r\nin the literature. 83.49% had values lower than 30 ng/mL and 60.97% lower than 20 ng/mL. In\r\nthis study we identified a serum 25OHD concentration of 35 ng/mL above which serum\r\nparathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration attains a plateau at about 35 pg/mL. The relation\r\nbetween serum PTH and 25OHD concentration was non-linear and a log-log diagram showed a\r\nvery weak correlation. The prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism was 32.25% in the\r\nwhole population studied. It ranged from 40% in the subgroup of serum 25OHD less than 10\r\nng/mL to less than 15% in patients with 25OHD higher than 30 ng/mL.\r\nIn conclusion, in a representative osteoporosis population from Romania we found a very\r\nhigh prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency whatever the cut-off used for\r\ndefinition.
  • General Endocrinology

    Ceral J, Malirova E, Kopecka P, Pelouch R, Solar M

    The Effect of Oral Sodium Loading and Saline Infusion on Direct Active Renin in Healthy Volunteers

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2011 7(1): 33-38 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2011.33

    Context. In patients with suspected primary aldosteronism (PA), the aldosteroneto- renin ratio (ARR) is the most frequently recommended screening test. Further evaluation is based on hormonal changes during volume expansion. Both analyses are critically dependent on an accurate estimation\r\nof renin concentration. Direct active renin (DAR) is a novel laboratory technique used for plasma renin assessment.\r\nObjective. The objective of this study was to evaluate DAR for use in PA diagnostic work-ups.\r\nSubjects and Methods. The study enrolled 69 healthy volunteers. Blood sampling was conducted before and after an\r\nincrease in oral salt intake. Furthermore, a subset of 32 individuals underwent a saline infusion suppression test. DAR and serum aldosterone were measured in all blood samples. To calculate the ARR, serum aldosterone and DAR were expressed in ng/L.\r\nResults. ARR values [median (range); 97.5 percentile] associated with normal and elevated oral salt intake were 8.4 (0.6-37.7); 26.3, and 6.8 (1.1-37.7); 19.6, respectively. DAR and serum aldosterone concentrations\r\n[median (range); 97.5 percentile] after saline infusion suppression were 2.9 (2.7-10.7); 7.2 ng/L and 30 (30-72); 54 pmol/L, respectively.\r\nConclusions. The observed values may be useful in excluding a diagnosis of PA.
  • General Endocrinology

    Ihezagire I, Bayramoglu Z, Akpinar YE, Adaletli I

    The Role of Superb Microvascular Imaging and Shear Wave Elastography in Differentiation of Thyroid Nodules from Intrathyroidal Ectopic Thymus in Children

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2021 17(1): 33-41 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2021.33

    Background. Ectopic thymus could be located intrathyroidal, therefore fine ultrasound details are useful for this differentiation. Aim. To investigate differences in stiffness and vascularity properties among thyroid nodules and intrathyroidal ectopic thymus (IET) by obtaining quantitative data in children. Patients and Methods. Twenty-seven thyroid nodules and 20 IET in children were evaluated in terms of vascularity index (VI) via superb microvascular imaging (SMI) and stiffness by shear wave elastography (SWE). Differences in the volume, VI, and SWE parameters of the lesions were assessed by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Association of the age, lesion volume, SWE, and VI parameters was investigated by using Spearman’s correlation analysis. The optimal cut-off values for stiffness and vascularity in the differentiation of nodules from IET were calculated with ROC analysis. Results. The median (range) age of the participants with thyroid nodules and IET were 15.6 (10-18) years and 8.8 (3-14) years, respectively. The medians (range) VI of the IET and thyroid nodules were 4.7 (0.2-16) % and 23.8 (7.5-40)%, respectively. The median SWE values were 7.6 (4.4-9.5) kPa and 15.58 (8.5-23.4) kPa for IET and nodules, respectively. There have been highly significant differences among medians of volume, SWE, and VI values of the lesions. Significant positive correlations were found between VI and SWE parameters (p=0.001, r=0.64), and volume with VI (p=0.018, r=0.34) and SWE (p:0.001, r= 0.5). The diagnostic accuracies were 93%, 91% with the cut-off values as 9.2 kPa, 13% for the SWE and SMI, respectively. IETs were found to be less vascular and less stiff than thyroid nodules. Conclusions. IETs could be easily and confidently differentiated from nodules using SWE and SMI quantifications. This discrimination prompts the reduction of unnecessary interventional procedures.
  • Endocrine Care

    Niculescu DA, Purice M, Lichiardopol R, Coculescu M

    Both insulin resistance and insulin secretion are involved in the pre-diabetes of acromegaly

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2010 6(1): 35-42 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2010.35

    In acromegalic patients growth hormone (GH) excess induces insulin resistance (IR) but whether this is sufficient for pre-diabetes to occur is a matter of debate.\r\nAim. To assess the relative role of IR and insulin secretion in the pre-diabetes of acromegaly.\r\nMethods. 126 patients with acromegaly (79 women, 47 men) were included. Plasma glucose, GH and insulin levels were measured basal and 30, 60 and 120 minutes during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Basal and stimulated IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) derived from OGTT (OGTTISI) respectively. Basal and stimulated insulin secretion was assessed using HOMA-B% index and insulinogenic index (IGI), respectively. The local Ethic Committee approved the study.\r\nResults. There were 51 subjects with pre-diabetes and 75 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Pre-diabetes group had a significantly higher HOMA-IR index (4.8?3.3 vs 2.5?1.6, p<0.001) and nadir GH in OGTT (9.4 (4.3, 22.2) vs. 4.8 (2.2, 14.5) ng/mL, p=0.02) than NGT group. HOMA-IR did not correlate with nadir GH serum level in pre-diabetes group (r =0.22, p=0.12) but correlated significantly in NGT group (r= 0.5, p<0.001). In contrast, the pre-diabetes group had a lower HOMA-B% index than NGT group (165.4?15.7 vs 228.5?29, p<0.001). HOMA-B% did not correlate with nadir GH in both groups. Unadjusted IGI did not differ between the two groups (0.40?0.07 vs. 0.48?0.05, p=0.34) but became statistically significant after adjusting for both basal IR (HOMA-IR) (0.31?0.06 vs. 0.54?0.05, p=0.01) and stimulated IR (OGTTISI) (0.30?0.06 vs. 0.54?0.05, p=0.005). There were no significant differences between pre-diabetes and NGT groups regarding age, duration of acromegaly and sex.\r\nConclusions. Our data suggest that reduced basal and stimulated insulin secretion express the failure of &#946;-cells adaptation to increased GH-induced-insulin resistance and is the pathogenic mechanism of pre-diabetes in acromegaly.
  • Endocrine Care

    Rastovic M, Srdic Galic B, Barak O, Stokic E, Vasiljev R

    Heart Rate Variability in Metabolically Healthy and Metabolically Unhealthy Obese Premenopausal Women

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2016 12(1): 35-42 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2016.35

    Content. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals are characterized by absence of metabolic syndrome. The role of autonomic nervous system in metabolic profile of obese subjects has not been sufficiently investigated. Objective. We analyzed heart rate variability (HRV) in MHO and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) premenopausal women. Design. In 42 women metabolic profile was defined as MHO and MUO. Subjects and Methods. For metabolic profile Wildman, IDF and HOMA-IR criteria were used. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by analysis of heart rate variability. Results. There was no significant difference in HRV between MHO and MUO premenopausal women. In Wildman division, after adjustment for systolic blood pressure, RRNN and LF/HF were statistically different between groups (p=0.0001; p=0.029). In IDF division, adjusting for waist circumference, LF was significantly different between groups (p=0.004). In HOMA division, adjusting for HOMA, groups were different in SDNN (p=0.009), RMSSD (p=0.002), pNN50 (p=0.003), HF(p=0.002) and TP (p=0.005). Conclusions. Autonomic nervous system does not share the leading role in premenopausal women metabolic profile. The differences in HRV between MHO and MUO women depend on the metabolic health criteria. Systolic blood pressure, HOMA and waist circumference have significant effect on HRV differences between MHO and MUO premenopausal women.
  • General Endocrinology

    Mesgari-Abbasi M, Abbasalizad Farhangi M

    Serum Concentrations of Cholecystokinin, Peptide YY, Ghrelin and High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein in Association with Metabolic Syndrome Ingredients in Obese Individuals

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2020 16(1): 37-42 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2020.37

    Objective. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a metabolic condition with high prevalence worldwide. This study aims to examine the relationship between serum concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the ingredients of MetS in obese population. Subjects and Methods. This case-control study included 40 obese subjects (20 with MetS and 20 BMI and age-matched control individuals). The age range of the participants was 20-50 years and the participants’ anthropometric characteristics were measured. Serum lipids and the concentrations of oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), insulin, hs-CRP, CCK, PYY, and ghrelin were assessed with commercial ELISA kits. Results. Serum levels of hs-CRP, total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in patients with MetS were significantly higher while CCK and insulin concentrations were higher in obese non- MetS group (P <0.05). PYY had a negative association with waist circumference (WC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and ghrelin had a positive association with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and TC in obese control group (P < 0.05). In obese patients with MetS, hs-CRP had a strong positive association with TG. Conclusion. The current study revealed the possible role of hs-CRP and several GI- hormones in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases and MetS. Additional works are needed to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms and clarify several controversies in this issue.
  • General Endocrinology

    Siderova M, Hristozov K., Krasnaliev I., Softova E., Boeva E

    Application of immunohistochemical markers in the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2013 9(1): 41-51 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2013.41

    Aim. To evaluate the expression of Galectin-3, Fibronectin-1, Cytokeratin-19 and HBME1 in benign and malignant thyroid nodules and to assess their diagnostic value. Methods. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 59 surgically removed thyroid nodules, including 34 carcinomas (12 papillary, 2 tall cell variants, 3 lymph node metastases from papillary carcinoma, 5 follicular variants of papillary carcinoma (FVPTC), 3 anaplastic, 5 follicular and 4 Hürthle cell carcinomas), as well as 25 benign lesions (10 follicular adenomas, 4 Hürthle cell adenomas, 11 nodular goiters with surrounding normal thyroid tissue).3 expression in all malignant lesions except for one case of FVPTC and one follicular carcinoma. Normal thyrocytes and the majority of the benign lesions were negative for all markers. Statistical analysis of each protein confirmed that Galectin-3 was the most sensitive (94%), followed by Cytokeratin-19 (88%). Fibronectin-1 and HBME1 proved to be less sensitive (56% and 68%, respectively), but more specific (92% specificity for each of them). Coexpression of two or more proteins was restricted to carcinomas, while their concurrent absence was highly specific for benign lesions. Comparing the immunopositivity in follicular carcinoma versus adenoma we achieved 80% sensitivity for Galectin-3 and 100% specificity for HBME1. For distinguishing the Hürthle cell lesions, Fibronectin-1 turned out to be more sensitive than Galectin-3 and Cytokeratin- 19. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that immunohistochemical panel consisting of Galectin-3, Cytokeratin-19, HBME1 and Fibronectin-1 might contribute to differential diagnosis between malignant and benign thyroid nodules, including those with follicular architecture.