The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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  • General Endocrinology

    Ursu HI, Podia-Igna C., Delia C.E., Toma G.M., Goran D., Galoiu S., Niculescu D.A., Giurgiu D., Gheorghiu M.L. , Anca IA

    Iodine Status after a Decade of Universal Salt Iodization in Romania: A Bicentric Study in Urban Areas

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2014 10(1): 9-20 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2014.9

    Objective. To assess in a bicentric study the current iodine status of schoolchildren, ten years after implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI) in Romania. Subjects and methods. 102 children from 2 towns, aged between 6 and 11 years, were included in the study group: 66 children from Sibiu, a previously endemic area for iodine deficiency disorders and 36 children from Bucharest, a previously borderline iodine intake area. Body mass index (BMI), total body surface area (BSA), median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and prevalence of goiter were evaluated. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography. The study was approved by the Local Ethics Committee. An informed consent from the parents was obtained. Results. From the 102 schoolchildren in the study group, 59 were girls and 43 were boys. Median UIC in the total number of samples was 175.2 mcg/L, reflecting a sufficient iodine intake, with statistically significant differences between the two urban regions. The median UIC was 187.35 mcg/L in the Sibiu subgroup and 160.2 mcg/L in the Bucharest subgroup (p < 0.001). The total percentage of goiter in the studied subjects was 5.88%. Percentage of goiter, determined by adjusting ultrasound thyroid volume to sex and BSA, was 1.51% in Sibiu and 13.88% in Bucharest, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.011). None of the subjects showed ultrasonographic pattern suggestive of Hashimoto thyroiditis or macronodules. There was no statistically significant difference between the percentages of overweight or obesity in the two subgroups. Conclusions. Ten years after implementation of USI in Romania, a bicentric study suggests that our country is iodine sufficient in urban areas. In order to prevent recurrence of mild iodine deficiency in schoolchildren, a persistent surveillance, use of sustainable measures and public awareness are required. Recurrence of mild iodine deficiency should be avoided, because even mild iodine deficiency impairs cognition in children.
  • Endocrine Care

    Simescu M, Dumitriu L, Sava M, Ciovernache D, Colda A, Balmes E, Ursu H, Bistriceanu M, Zosin I, Duncea I, Balasz J, Kun I, Dragatoiu G, Hazi G, Coamesu I, Harsan T, Stamoran L, Florescu E, Vitiuc M, Varciu M, Budura I, Fugaciu A, Hutanu T, Lepadatu D, Sulac H, Sirbu A

    Urinary Iodine Levels in Schoolchildren and Pregnant Women After the Legislative Changes in the Salt Iodization

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2006 2(1): 33-44 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2006.33

    Endemic goiter occurred in different degrees throughout 2/3 of Romania, mainly in the Carpathian area. The prophylaxis of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) using salt iodization was introduced in 1956 with potassium iodate, KIO3, 15-25 mg/1kg salt, but only in 23 districts. In 2002 a new legislation introduced the mandatory use of the iodized salt in a higher concentration in households of all 41 districts and also in the baking industry. The study aims to evaluate the effects of iodine legislation changes upon the urinary iodine excretion (UIC) in schoolchildren (study group A) and pregnant women (study group B). Urine samples were collected from 3737 schoolchildren aged 6-14 years of 14 districts and from 1283 pregnant women of 11 districts in the years 2004-2005. In two areas - Bistrita Nasaud and Bucharest - the number of schoolchildren was larger, i.e. 465 and 1617 respectively. UIC was determined in spot urine samples by Sandell Kolthoff?s method. The results show in schoolchildren an increase of the median UIC in 9 out of 14 districts up to 90 ? 61.1 ?g/L (range 12.5-300 ?g/L). Six of these districts are in the Carpathian area. However, in pregnant women in 2004, UIC still showed low levels of 55 ? 48.78 ?g/L (range 12.5-280 ?g/L) in all 11 studied districts and in Bucharest, close to the UIC obtained in the year 2001. In conclusion, this study revealed an increase of median values of UIC in schoolchildren after universal salt iodization program. The persistence of iodine deficiency in pregnant women in the studied districts is an emergency problem that has to be solved as soon as possible. This fact involves the necessity of a large monitoring program in the next years, in all districts in urban and rural areas and in all known pockets of endemia.
  • Endocrine Care

    Ursu HI, Trifanescu R, Belgun M, Tatu-Chitoiu G, Podia-Igna C, Serban T, Hortopan D, Gudovan E, Goldstein A

    The outcome of radioiodine treatment in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2007 3(1): 55-68 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2007.55

    Background. In most type 1 and mixed forms of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT), after restoration of euthyroidism and whether amiodarone can be withdrawn, an ablative therapy (thyroidectomy or radioiodine) is required. Radioiodine ablation of the thyroid was reported to prevent recurrence of AIT after amiodarone reintroduction.\r\nAims. To assess the efficacy and safety of radioiodine treatment in type 1 and mixed forms of AIT.\r\nPatients and methods. 9 patients (6M/3F) with type 1 and mixed form of AIT, mean age 62.2 ? 13.3 years (range: 50-85 years), pretreated with methimazole, received radioiodine treatment. The underlying thyroid disease was Graves disease (n= 5), toxic multinodular goiter (n= 3) and toxic adenoma (n=1). TSH, total T3, total T4, free T4, TPOAb were measured by radioimmunoassay; radioiodine uptake, thyroid ultrasonography, color flow Doppler ultrasonography were performed.\r\nResults. Multiple radioiodine doses were required in 4 out of 9 patients. Pretreatment 24 hours radioiodine uptake exceeded 10% in 12 out of 16 doses. Mean cumulative dose was 23.17 ? 17.48 mCi 131I (range 6-50 mCi). The period between amiodarone withdrawal and 131I administration was 11.72 ? 12.45 months (range: 2-41 months). Mean cumulative 131I dose was higher in AIT due to toxic multinodular goiter and toxic adenoma (30.25 ? 20.09, range: 11-50 mCi) versus Graves disease (17.5 ? 14.76, range: 6.5-40 mCi). In one patient with toxic adenoma, thyroidectomy was contraindicated due to a comorbidity-central core disease - a non-progressive congenital myopathy, associated with an increased risk for malignant hyperthermia. Hypothyroidism occurred in all patients but one (euthyroid), within 14 ? 3 months (range: 5-27) after the first radioiodine dose. Sinus rhythm was restored in 3 out of 5 patients. One case of radiation thyroiditis occurred after a single 6.5 mCi 131I dose.\r\nConclusion. Radioiodine ablation therapy is an effective and safe alternative in patients with type 1 and mixed forms of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis. Since amiodarone should need sometimes to be restarted, post radioiodine hypothyroidism should be viewed as a goal rather than a complication.
  • Case Report

    Gheorghiu ML, Iorgulescu R, Vrabie CD, Tupea CC, Ursu HI

    Thyroid Metastasis from Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney 16 Years after Nephrectomy

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2016 12(1): 80-84 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2016.80

    The thyroid gland is one of the most vascularized organs in the body. However, metastatic disease to the thyroid gland is rare. When it does occur kidney is the most common primary tumor site, followed by melanoma, lung, breast, esophagus, uterus and colon carcinoma. We describe the case of an isolated thyroid metastasis from clear cell renal carcinoma occurring 16 years after nephrectomy. An 82 years-old woman presented for the recent growth of a right thyroid nodule, diagnosed 3 years before, when a fine needle aspiration biopsy found a benign cytology suggesting a well-differentiated follicular thyroid adenoma. Her medical history included type 2 diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and a right nephrectomy for a clear cell renal carcinoma done 16 years before. The patient has lost weight but she was otherwise asymptomatic. The right lobe goiter was painless, firm, and mobile with deglutition, without signs of local compression or latero-cervical lymphadenopathy. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed an enlarged (9.9 cm) macronodular right lobe, with multiple cystic areas, with normal left lobe and a thrombus in the right internal jugular vein. Thyroid function tests were normal. The patient was suspected of thyroid carcinoma and underwent a near total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination revealed a metastasis of clear cell renal carcinoma in the right thyroid gland lobe (8.5/5/5 cm). Further imaging showed no primary tumor or other metastases. Metastatic renal carcinoma to the thyroid should be considered in any patient presenting with a thyroid mass and a medical history of operated renal cell carcinoma, since it can occur up to 25 years after nephrectomy.
  • Case Report

    Ursu HI, Barbu I, Sima D, Manea M, Suciu I, Alexandrescu D

    Thyrotoxic psychosis - two case reports

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2008 4(1): 99-105 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2008.99

    Alteration in nervous system function in patients with thyrotoxicosis is frequent. In rare cases, mental disturbances may be severe: maniac-depressive, schizoid or paranoid reaction. The pathophysiologic basis of these nervous system findings is not well understood. The first patient, being on treatment with benzodiazepine and Risperidone for mood deterioration, was admitted in Thyroid Unit 1 for clinical features suggesting addition, he developed auditory and visual hallucinations, bizarre behavior, disorganized speech, disorientation, poor attention and loss memory for recent events, having a good clinical response after addition of antithyroid drug therapy. The second case developed clinical features suggesting thyrotoxicosis, associated with visual and auditory hallucinations, marked psychomotor agitation and bizarre behavior. After an unsuccessful monotherapy (Risperidone), a good response of clinical features (including psychiatric symptoms) to combined therapy (Methimazole and Risperidone) was recorded. The diagnosis of Graves&#8217; disease was based on clinical and laboratory data (suppressed serum TSH level, elevated serum FT3) and ophthalmological examination or positive anti - TPO antibodies. Both patients were successfully treated with combined therapy - Methimazole and Risperidone. Both case reports demonstrate the importance of performing thyroid function tests in patients with acute psychosis.
  • Case Report

    Ozcabi B, Kirmizibekmez H, Yesiltepe Mutlu G, Dursun F, Guran T

    Management of Rapidly Progressive Precocious Puberty in a Patient with Mosaic Turner Syndrome

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2021 17(1): 101-105 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2021.101

    Context. Rapidly progressive precocious puberty (RPPP) is a rare condition in Turner syndrome (TS), with no consensus on treatment and follow-up. Only 12 cases have been reported so far. Objective. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the GnRH analog (GnRHa) on growth and anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in TS and RPPP. Design. The clinical and laboratory data was recorded at baseline and after treatment. Subjects and methods. An 8.1-year old girl with a karyotype of 45, X/46, XX presented with breast development at Tanner stage-2. Breast development advanced to Tanner stage-3 at the age of 8.7 years. Growth velocity (GV) was 8 cm/year. Bone age was 11 years with a predicted adult height of 152 cm. Luteinizing hormone (LH) was 1.69mIU/mL and estradiol was 33pg/mL, confirming the central puberty. AMH level was 6.33ng/mL. The sizes of ovaries and uterus were compatible with the pubertal stage, with an endometrial thickness of 5 mm. GnRHa was started for RPPP. Results. After three months, GV declined to 0 cm/3 months and AMH level to 50% of the baseline. Growth hormone (GH) treatment was started for insufficient growth. GV improved with GH treatment, as well as a far more decreased AMH level. Conclusion. GV usually declines before puberty in patients with TS, even if the mid-parental height is tall. RPPP should be considered if GV is increased. Excessive suppression of growth may be prevented with GH treatment. GnRHa treatment also plays a role in reducing AMH levels in patients with TS.
  • Case Report

    Kozma A, Radoi V, Ursu R, Bohaltea CL, Lazarescu H, Carniciu S

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and the Development of Cleft Lip / Palate in Newborns

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2019 15(1): 118-122 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2019.118

    Background. Several studies observed metabolic disorders in pregnancy as risk factors for birth defects, including orofacial clefts. Diabetes is associated with approx. 10% of the pregnancies, but in Romania, less than 5%. An obese and diabetic woman has 3 times more risk for an offspring with a craniofacial defect than healthy women suggesting that diabetes mellitus contributes to their pathogenesis with complex mechanisms. Case report. We present the case of a newborn 4 days old, male with neonatal hypoglycemia, cleft lip and proportionate (symmetric) macrosomia. His mother is a 35 years old Caucasian woman with no important personal risk factors and no known history of diabetes mellitus. The glucose tolerance test performed to the mother at about 10 weeks during pregnancy led to the diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Discussion. The gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed since the 10th week of pregnancy, the hyperglycemia status during pregnancy and the fetal overgrowth (macrosomia at birth) indicate the possible factors that lead to the Orofacial cleft (OFC). Conclusion. With the increased prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and the evidence of association of these syndromes with OFCs, it is recommended that mothers planning to become pregnant to follow healthy habits, maintain healthy weight, and be screened for possible diabetes prior to conception and early in pregnancy.
  • Notes & Comments

    Ursu H, Ioachim D, Munteanu L

    About the guideline for diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in a country with endemic goiter

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2010 6(1): 129-138 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2010.129

    Endemic goiter and primary hyperparathyroidism are two common endocrine disorders, and, consequently, they could coexist in many European countries. The prevalence of nodular goiters is increased in the patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, ranging widely between 22 to 70%, with higher prevalence in endemic goiter areas.\r\nRomania is a country having both endemic goiter and a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Coexisting vitamin D deficiency is associated with more cases of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism or may mask a primary hyperparathyroidism, serum calcium being in the normal range.\r\nBecause of the frequent association of parathyroid adenomas with thyroid nodules, the optimal imaging combination is 99mTc-sestamibi and ultrasonography. Thyroid nodules can give false positive results at preoperative scintigraphy because they trap and retain 99mTc-sestamibi similarly as parathyroid adenomas.\r\nBilateral neck exploration (vs minimally invasive parathyroidectomy) is probably necessary in the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism associated with nodular goiter, because nodular goiters increases the difficulty of preoperative localization of parathyroid lesion(s).
  • Endocrine Care

    Ursu HI, Toader OD, Podia - Igna C, Delia CE, Firta AR, Tupea CC, Tudor LM, Gheorghiu ML, Suciu N

    Iodine Status in Pregnant Women after a Decade of Universal Salt Iodization in Romania

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2016 12(2): 161-167 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2016.161

    Objective. To assess iodine status (median urinary iodine concentration) in 118 pregnant women during the third trimester from endemic or non-endemic areas, a decade after implementation of Universal Salt Iodization in Romania. Subjects and methods. One hundred and eighteen pregnant women in the third trimester were included in the study group (age range: 16 – 46 years, mean age: 28.78 years). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Data regarding region of provenance, smoking habits during pregnancy, education level, iodized salt intake, bread intake, iodine supplements, comorbidities (iron deficiency anemia) and birth weight were assessed. Morning urine was collected to measure median UIC. The study was approved by the Local Ethics Committee. Results. Median UIC in the study group was 206 mcg/L, reflecting iodine sufficiency during pregnancy. There is a statistically significant difference between pregnant women with and without iodine supplements from rural areas (281.5 versus 196.1 mcg/L, respectively, p=0.023). In the subgroup without iodine supplementation, there was a significant difference between overweight and obese subjects vs. normal weight subjects (232.5 versus 194 mcg/L, p=0.012). Only in the subgroup with a daily intake of less than 5 slices of bread (usually containing iodized salt) we found significant differences between those with and without iodine supplements (245.2 versus 128.3 mcg/L). Iron deficiency anemia was found in 29.66% and 19.49% were current smokers during pregnancy. Conclusions. Median UIC in the study group was 206 mcg/L, reflecting iodine sufficiency during pregnancy. The difference between the subgroup with iodine supplements and the subgroup without iodine supplements was not statistically significant, probably due to the excessive consumption of bread and other bakery products which is traditional in Romania.
  • Endocrine Care

    Trifanescu RA, Fica S, Ursu H, Dimulescu D, Coman I, Ceck C, Barbu C, Coculescu M

    Tri-iodothyronine as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2006 2(2): 187-202 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2006.187

    Aims: To assess if amiodarone maintains its antiarrhythmic efficacy in the presence of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism (AIT) and to identify the tri-iodothyronine (T3) threshold for atrial fibrillation in patients with AIT versus common hyperthyroidism.\r\nPatients and methods. Study group A consists in 49 patients (25 M/24 F) with AIT (220.83 ? 71.33 mg/day along 2.36 ? 2.25 years) and severe cardiopathies (9 valvulopathies, 40 ischaemic, dilatative and hypertensive cardiomyopathies), aged 57.87?12.63 years. Control group B consists in 51 hypothyroid (B1) or euthyroid patients (B2) treated with amiodarone (222.55 ? 68.78 mg/day along 2.67 ? 1.84 years) and also in 100 patients (23M/77F) with overt hyperthyroidism (B3), without major heart diseases, aged 52.74?12.85 years; TSH, total T3, total T4, free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. All were clinically, ECG and echocardiography evaluated.\r\nResults. Prevalence of arrhythmias recurrence was 59.2% (29/49 patients) in group A, significantly higher than in each control subgroups B: B1- 28% (7/25), B2- 15.45% (4/26) and B3- 20% (20/100), P< 0.001. Patients from study group A with AIT and T3 levels >250 ng/dL developed significantly more frequent atrial fibrillation (p= 0.04). However, in control group B3 with common hyperthyroidism, no T3 threshold for arrhythmias could be identified. Overall, there were no significant differences in total T3 levels with respect to the presence of atrial fibrillation in both study group A and subgroup B3 with common hyperthyroidism (p=ns).\r\nConclusion. Amiodarone antiarrhythmic efficacy is surpassed in AIT by the increased arrhythmic susceptibility of damaged myocardial tissue to minimally increased thyroid hormones levels. A tri-iodothyronine level > 250 ng/dL superimposed on preexistent proarrhythmic substrate in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism should be avoided.