The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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  • General Endocrinology

    Aioanei CS, Ilies RF, Bala C, Petrisor MF, Porojan MD, Popp RA, Catana A

    The Role of Adiponectin and Toll-Like Receptor 4 Gene Polymorphisms on Non-Proliferative Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. A Case control Study in Romanian Caucasians Patients

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2019 15(1): 32-38 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2019.32

    Context. Persistent inflammation and impaired neovascularization are important contributors to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Gene polymorphisms of adiponectin (APN) were demonstrated to have an important role on the plasma level and activity of adiponectin. APN has anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic properties. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) is a critical mediator of innate immunity. Polymorphisms in TLR-4 gene were shown to be associated with impaired inflammatory response in diabetes. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of +276G>T variant of APN gene and Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile of TLR-4 gene variants in relationship with T2DM and DR in an Eastern European population group. Design. The distribution of the mutant alleles in 198 T2DM patients with DR and 200 non-T2DM controls was examined. Genomic DNA from T2DM patients and healthy controls genotyped through the use of PCR-RFPL assay. Results. Genotype and allele frequencies of the Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms differed between T2DM patients and non diabetic subjects (P<0.001). Moreover, the presence of the minor alleles of these polymorphisms were significantly identified as protective factors against T2DM, under a dominant model of Fisher’s exact test (χ2=4.988, phi=0.745, OR=0.767, 95% CI=0.602-0.867, P<0.001; respectively χ2=5.254, phi=0.820, OR=0.487, 95% CI=0.211- 0.648, P<0.001). Genotype analysis for the adiponectin 276G>T gene polymorphism yielded no significant association with T2DM, but revealed a borderline significance for the association with DR (χ2=5.632, phi=0.423, OR =1.101, 95% CI=0.887-1.203, P=0.009). Conclusions. We found an association between the TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and protection for DR. The APN genetic polymorphism is not associated with T2DM.
  • Endocrine Care

    Simescu M, Dumitriu L, Sava M, Ciovernache D, Colda A, Balmes E, Ursu H, Bistriceanu M, Zosin I, Duncea I, Balasz J, Kun I, Dragatoiu G, Hazi G, Coamesu I, Harsan T, Stamoran L, Florescu E, Vitiuc M, Varciu M, Budura I, Fugaciu A, Hutanu T, Lepadatu D, Sulac H, Sirbu A

    Urinary Iodine Levels in Schoolchildren and Pregnant Women After the Legislative Changes in the Salt Iodization

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2006 2(1): 33-44 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2006.33

    Endemic goiter occurred in different degrees throughout 2/3 of Romania, mainly in the Carpathian area. The prophylaxis of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) using salt iodization was introduced in 1956 with potassium iodate, KIO3, 15-25 mg/1kg salt, but only in 23 districts. In 2002 a new legislation introduced the mandatory use of the iodized salt in a higher concentration in households of all 41 districts and also in the baking industry. The study aims to evaluate the effects of iodine legislation changes upon the urinary iodine excretion (UIC) in schoolchildren (study group A) and pregnant women (study group B). Urine samples were collected from 3737 schoolchildren aged 6-14 years of 14 districts and from 1283 pregnant women of 11 districts in the years 2004-2005. In two areas - Bistrita Nasaud and Bucharest - the number of schoolchildren was larger, i.e. 465 and 1617 respectively. UIC was determined in spot urine samples by Sandell Kolthoff?s method. The results show in schoolchildren an increase of the median UIC in 9 out of 14 districts up to 90 ? 61.1 ?g/L (range 12.5-300 ?g/L). Six of these districts are in the Carpathian area. However, in pregnant women in 2004, UIC still showed low levels of 55 ? 48.78 ?g/L (range 12.5-280 ?g/L) in all 11 studied districts and in Bucharest, close to the UIC obtained in the year 2001. In conclusion, this study revealed an increase of median values of UIC in schoolchildren after universal salt iodization program. The persistence of iodine deficiency in pregnant women in the studied districts is an emergency problem that has to be solved as soon as possible. This fact involves the necessity of a large monitoring program in the next years, in all districts in urban and rural areas and in all known pockets of endemia.
  • Endocrine Care

    Roman G, Bala C, Craciun A, Craciun CI, Rusu A

    Eating Patterns, Physical Activity and Their Association with Demographic Factors in the Population Included in the Obesity Study in Romania (ORO Study)

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2016 12(1): 47-51 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2016.47

    Context. Four major modifiable behavioral risk factors are considered responsible for the current burden of the non-communicable diseases: tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and excessive alcohol consumption. Limited data on the lifestyle habits in Romanian population is currently available. Objective. To assess the eating patterns and physical activity habits and other lifestyle components in various age groups in the population included in the ORO study. Design. ORO was a cross-sectional, epidemiologic, multicenter non-interventional study conducted from January 2014 until August 2014 in 8 study centers spread in the main historical regions of Romania Results. Eating 3 meals/day every day was more frequently reported in the 60-79 years and ≥ 80 years age groups (53.0% and 51.7%) than in the 18-39 years and 40- 59 years age groups (26.8% and 35.8%), p <0.001. The frequency of eating breakfast every day increased with age from 43.5% in the youngest age group to 79.3% in the oldest one (p <0.001). Intense and moderate leisure-time physical activity was more frequent among participants in the 18- 39 years age group. Leisure time physical activities were associated with younger age groups, male sex, rural area, higher educational level and non-smoking status. Regular breakfast and regular consumption of 3 meals/day was associated with older age group, male sex and non-smoking status. Conclusions. Our analysis showed a high frequency of unhealthy lifestyle habits among the younger age groups as compared to the older ones, with the highest frequency of these unhealthy behavior reported in the 18-39 years age group.
  • Endocrine Care

    Roman G, Bala C, Creteanu G, Graur M, Morosanu M, Amorin P, Pîrcalaboiu L, Radulian G, Timar R, Achimas Cadariu A

    Obesity and Health-Related Lifestyle Factors in the General Population in Romania: a Cross Sectional Study

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2015 11(1): 64-72 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2015.64

    Context. The socio-economic and medical burden of obesity represents a continuous challenge for both developing and developed countries. For Romania, the available data on the eating patterns, behavior and other components of lifestyle are scarce. Objective. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Romanian general population and to identify lifestyle patterns characteristic for the Romanian population in terms of eating patterns and physical activity. Design. Cross-sectional, epidemiologic, multicenter non-interventional study Subjects and Methods. Between January 2014 and August 2014 were enrolled 2128 adults by 8 investigators spread in the main historical regions of Romania. The following data: demographic, anthropometric, employment status, education, family history, personal medical history, information on the lifestyle and eating habits. Results. The final population included in the analysis presented here consisted of 2103 participants with no missing information on height and weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.1% and 21.3%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 9.9% in the 18-39 years age group, 30.1% in the 40-59 years age group, 41.6% in the 60- 79 years age group and 24.1% in the ≥80 years age group (p <0.001). Irregular meals together with eating while watching TV were the most frequent unhealthy eating habits of the participants. Conclusions. We found a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among the participants enrolled. Our study has important implications for increasing the knowledge on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Romania and associated lifestyle habits.
  • Endocrine Care

    Roman G, Rusu A, Graur M, Creteanu G, Morosanu M, Radulian G, Amorin P, Timar R, Pircalaboiu L, Bala C

    Dietary Patterns and their Association with Obesity: a Cross-Sectional Study

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2019 15(1): 86-95 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2019.86

    Context. Scarce data on dietary habits in Eastern European countries is available and reports investigated individual food items and not dietary patterns in these populations Objective. To identify dietary patterns and to explore their association with obesity in a sample from Romanian population. Design. Cross-sectional. Subjects and Methods. This was an analysis of data collected from 1398 adult participants in ORO study. Data on lifestyle, eating habits and food frequency consumption were collected. Results. By principal component analysis we identified 3 dietary patterns explaining 31.4% of the diet variation: High meat/High fat pattern, Western pattern and Prudent pattern. High meat/High fat pattern was associated with male gender, lower educational level, living in a rural, smoking and a higher probability for the presence of obesity (OR 1.2 [95%CI: 1.1-1.4]). Western pattern was associated with younger age, a higher level of physical activity and smoking. Prudent pattern was associated with older age, female gender, a higher level of physical activity, not smoking status and a lower probability for the presence of obesity (OR 0.8 [95%CI: 0.7-0.9]). Conclusions. This study provides for the first-time information on the association between dietary patterns in adults from an Eastern European country and the presence of obesity.
  • Case Report

    Jinga M, Jurcut C., Vasilescu F., Balaban V.D., Maki M., Popp A

    Celiac Gluten Sensitivity in an Adult Wman with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2014 10(1): 128-133 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2014.128

    We present the case-report of a 56 years-old woman with hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroiditis. The family history was positive for biopsy proven celiac disease (CD) in her daughter. The patient declared gluten-containing diet and was completely asymptomatic regarding gastrointestinal tract. The serological screening for CD reflected an activity of the disease by the presence of antiendomysial antibodies (EMA). Consequently, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed and biopsy specimens were obtained. The standard histopathological examination was unremarkable for a defined CD. However, the results of immunohistological techniques showed intestinal IgA deposits compatible with early developing CD. In patients with family history of CD, even without any suggestive symptoms, high index of suspicion regarding CD should be kept even more in those associating other autoimmune disease.
  • General Endocrinology

    Persa OD, Joanta A.E., Miclutia I., Decea N., Balaj R., Clichici R., Szentagotai L

    Correlations Between Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Oxidative Stress in Mixed Dementia

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2013 9(2): 161-170 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2013.161

    Background. The occurrence of mixed dementia defined as the association of Alzheimer’s disease with vascular dementia is increasing due to the global aging of the human population. Since thyroid hormones play a role in cognition and alterations of the thyroid axis occur with aging it is reasonable to assume that thyroid function and cognitive decline in mixed dementia are linked. Objective. To investigate whether there is a link between TSH, oxidative stress, cognitive decline and depression in female patients with mixed dementia. Methods. Fourty female patients with mixed dementia and 10 healthy controls were included in the study. MMSE, depression score (Cornel Scale of depression), TSH, MDA, glutathione were determined. Serum TSH levels correlated with the cognitive decline measured by MMSE (r=0.55 p=0.0002) and with de depression score (r=0.34 p=0.0314). Furthermore an increase in the oxidative stress marker MDA (p=0.0004) and in the antioxidant defense marker Glutathione (p=0.0013) was observed in patients with mixed dementia. In addition the levels of Glutathione correlated with cognitive decline (r=-0.4997 p=0.001) and with the levels of TSH (r=-0.4997 p=0.001). Conclusion. Our results suggest that thyroid function, oxidative stress and mixed dementia are corelated. However, a possible cause and effect relationship is not yet proved.
  • General Endocrinology

    Rusu A, Nita, Todea D, Rosca L, Bala C, Hancu N

    Correlation of the Daytime Sleepiness with Respiratory Sleep Parameters in Patients with Sleep Apnea and Type 2 Diabetes

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2011 7(2): 163-171 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2011.163

    Objective. The aim of the study was to test whether a correlation exists between the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and respiratory sleep parameters in patients with\r\ntype 2 diabetes.\r\nDesign. Subjects and Methods.The records of 83 consecutive patients (mean age 54.6? 9.8 years) with type 2 diabetes\r\nthat accepted to perform an in-hospital sleep study for screening of sleep apnea have been retrospectively evaluated.\r\nResults. There was a weak positive correlation between apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index and ESS, and a weak negative correlation between ESS and mean O2 saturation. When data was separately analyzed in men and\r\nwomen, it could not be identified any correlation between sleep respiratory parameters and ESS in men. In women,\r\ncorrelation coefficients increased, proving a stronger relationship between ESS and AHI (r=0.65, p<0.001), mean O2 saturation (r=-0.52, p=0.005) and oxygen desaturation index (r=0.60, p=0.001). ESS had only a moderate level of accuracy in identifying patients with moderate and severe sleep\r\napnea (sensitivity 84.1%, specificity 74.1%, PPV 84.1%, NPV 74.1%). In women ESS showed a higher sensitivity than in men\r\n(92% vs. 80.6%), but a lower PPV (63% vs.78.1%) in predicting the presence of an AHI &#8805; 15.\r\nConclusions. In women with type 2 diabetes, it is possible to suspect the existence of SAS solely on the basis of the\r\nESS score. In male population, symptoms evaluated by questionnaires, such as the ESS, provide additional information which combined with clinical findings are helpful in selecting patients who are candidates for further detailed sleep studies.
  • General Endocrinology

    Nita CA, Rusu A, Bala CG, Hancu N

    Predictors of postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2009 5(2): 177-182 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2009.177

    Objective. to investigate the factors associated with postprandial glucose excursions in\r\npatients with type 2 diabetes.\r\nResearch Design and Methods. A complete medical history and physical examination\r\nwere assessed in 118 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes attending the Diabetes\r\nOutpatient Clinic, Cluj-Napoca. Blood samples were collected in fasting state, and HbA1c\r\nand lipid profile were assessed. A six points blood glucose profile measured by patients at\r\nhome was performed. To determine variables associated with higher postprandial glycemic\r\nlevels, factor analysis followed by linear regression model was performed.\r\nResults. The study group had a median age of 59.2 years, 43.4% were females. The\r\nmedian duration of diabetes was 5 years. By factor analysis we have extracted 4 factors that\r\nexplained 75.6% of the variance of postprandial glycemia: factor 1 with positive loadings of\r\ntotal cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, factor 2 with positive loadings of body mass index\r\nand waist circumference, factor 3 with positive loadings of diabetes duration and age, factor\r\n4 with positive loadings of triglycerides and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). After\r\nadjustment for the sex and treatment, only factor 2 and factor 4 remained significantly associated\r\nwith postprandial glycemic values (p=0.003 and p<0.001), indicating that the postprandial\r\nglycemia is best predicted by a multiple regression that included body mass index, waist\r\ncircumference, tryglicerides and HbA1c as independent variables (r=0.54, p<0.001).\r\nConclusion. The results of our study shows that low body mass index and waist\r\ncircumference, high triglycerides and HbA1c levels are independently associated with\r\npostprandial glucose excursions.
  • Editorial

    Bala C, Craciun AE, Hancu N

    Updating the Concept of Metabolically Healthy Obesity

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2016 12(2): 197-205 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2016.197

    Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer. However, a proportion of the obese individuals display a significantly lower risk for metabolic complications than expected for their degree of body mass index, and this subtype of obesity was described as “metabolically healthy obesity” (MHO). No universally accepted criteria for the diagnosis of MHO exists and the prevalence of this subtype of obesity varies largely according to criteria used. Broadly, MHO is characterized by a lower amount of visceral fat, a more favorable inflammatory profile, and less insulin resistance as compared to the metabolically unhealthy obesity. Currently, controversies exist regarding the risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality associated with MHO as compared to metabolically-healthy non-obese individuals. Further research is needed in order to identify the MHO phenotype and if MHO is truly healthy for a long period of time or if it is a transient state from normal metabolic/normal weight to abnormal metabolic/obese state. This review will discuss the MHO definition criteria; the differences between MHO and metabolically unhealthy obesity; the possible underlying mechanisms and clinical implications of MHO.