The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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  • General Endocrinology

    Armasu I, Preda C, Ianole V, Mocanu V, Hristov I, Andriescu EC, Cretu-Silivestru I, Vasiliu, Dascalu CG, Lupascu CD, Crumpei I, Serban DN, Serban IL , Ciobanu Apostol DG

    Insights on Aromatase Immunohistochemistry: Variations between Intrinsic Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancers

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2020 16(1): 22-29 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2020.22

    Context. Aromatase is a key enzyme in local estrogen production by androgen conversion, especially in women post-menopause. There have been controversies concerning aromatase localization in breast carcinomas and its association with current histopathological variables. Material and Methods. Using polyclonal antibody immunohistochemistry we assessed (by intensity and percentage scores) the immunolocalization of aromatase in 70 tissue samples, and described particularities within the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Results. Aromatase was found in all tissue compartments: tumor (95.7%), stroma (58.6%) and adipose tissue (94.3%). Aromatase expression in tumor cells correlated inversely with tumor grading (p=-0.361, p=0.027), and positively with estrogen receptor status (ER, p=0.143, p<0.001). Dividing the study group by intrinsic subtypes, a strongly inversely association between tumor aromatase and grading (p=-0.486, p<0.001), and between stromal aromatase and Ki67-index (p=-0.448, p=0.048) was observed in luminal A breast cancer. Tumor aromatase and ER percentage scores had stronger correlations in luminal B HER2 negative (p=0.632, p=0.002), and positive (p=0.324, p=0.026) tumors. In contrast, in triple negative tumors, a positive association stromal aromatase and Ki67 index (p=- 0.359, p=0.007) was observed. Conclusion. Local aromatase was linked to better tumor differentiation and proliferation in luminal breast subtypes, and not in triple negative cases, suggesting a potential prognostic role of aromatase in breast carcinomas.
  • General Endocrinology

    Wang JL, Sun Y, Wang Y, Wu Y, Liu F

    Could Proteinuria Predict the Renal Prognoses of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy?

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2022 18(1): 29-34 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2022.29

    Aims. This study investigated the relationship between proteinuria levels, clinicopathological features, and renal prognoses in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods. Three hundred patients with T2DM and biopsy-proven DN were enrolled. Patients were stratified by 24-h proteinuria levels: Group 1:≤1g/24h); Group 2:1-3g/24h; and Group 3:≥3g/24h. Renal outcomes were defined as having reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The proteinuria level’s influence on the renal outcomes was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Results. Among subgroups stratified by proteinuria levels, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, BUN, cholesterol, DR and hypertension incidence, the incidences of patients who progressed to ESRD were the lowest in group 1 (P<0.05). However, eGFR, serum albumin and hemoglobin were highest in group 1. Patients with higher proteinuria levels had much lower five-year renal survival rates. Univariate analyses revealed that higher proteinuria levels were significant clinical predictors of renal prognosis (P<0.05), although they were not independent risk factors for progression to ESRD in the multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis (P>0.05). Conclusions. The higher the level of proteinuria, the lower the 5-year renal survival rate of DN patients, but there was no significant correlation between proteinuria level and 5-year renal survival rate. Other factors in the proteinuria group may have more significant effects on the 5-year renal survival rate, such as lower baseline eGFR, serum albumin, hemoglobin and higher cholesterol, higher incidences of DR and more severe lesions.
  • General Endocrinology

    Wen F, Yang Y, Sun C, Fang H, Nie L, Li L, Liu Y, Yang Z

    Resistin Inhibits Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion through miR-494 by Target on STXBP5

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2017 13(1): 32-39 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2017.32

    Aims. Resistin has been reported to impair the pancreatic beta cells and associated with insulin resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenously produced non-coding ribonucleotides that bind mRNAs and function mainly as negative regulators in mammals. MiRNAs have been implicated in many diseases, including insulin resistance and diabetes. A considerable body of evidence has indicated an important function for miRNAs in insulin secretion. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of miR-494 in the reductions in insulin secretion attributable to resistin. Methods. Insulin secretion was determined by ELISA, and expressions of genes were identified using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) or Western blot analysis. Results. Insulin secretion was significantly reduced by resistin. Overexpression of miR-494 inhibited insulin secretion both in diet culture and high glucose medium in MIN6 cell lines. MiR-494 down-regulated the protein level of STXBP5 by pairing with sites in the 3′UTR. Conclusion. miR-494 is involved in the insulin secretion regulated by resistin via its effects on STXBP5 in MIN6 cells.
  • Endocrine Care

    Grigorie D, Sucaliuc A, Ivan M, Neacsu E, Popa O, Diaconescu A

    High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in 1048 Romanian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2008 4(1): 33-45 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2008.33

    Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common medical problems worldwide as they\r\nare quite prevalent in both healthy adults and individuals with osteoporosis, hospitalized patients\r\nand free-living and institutionalized elderly. The lack of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD)\r\nassays standardization, variability of reference population, and the use of different cut-off points\r\nhave produced quite different prevalence reports from epidemiological studies.\r\nWe investigated the vitamin D status (deficiency, insufficiency, sufficiency) in 1048\r\nRomanian postmenopausal women with osteoporosis referred to our clinic for diagnosis and\r\ntreatment in the last three years. Most patients were untreated with osteoporosis drugs and nonsupplemented\r\nwith vitamin D. In our country dietary sources of vitamin D are scarce and there\r\nis no fortification of food with vitamin D. We found a high prevalence of both vitamin D\r\ndeficiency (25OHD < 10 ng/mL) - 22.23% and insufficiency (25OHD=10-30 ng/mL) - 61.26%.\r\nOur study also revealed a high prevalence of low vitamin D when using other cut-offs as reported\r\nin the literature. 83.49% had values lower than 30 ng/mL and 60.97% lower than 20 ng/mL. In\r\nthis study we identified a serum 25OHD concentration of 35 ng/mL above which serum\r\nparathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration attains a plateau at about 35 pg/mL. The relation\r\nbetween serum PTH and 25OHD concentration was non-linear and a log-log diagram showed a\r\nvery weak correlation. The prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism was 32.25% in the\r\nwhole population studied. It ranged from 40% in the subgroup of serum 25OHD less than 10\r\nng/mL to less than 15% in patients with 25OHD higher than 30 ng/mL.\r\nIn conclusion, in a representative osteoporosis population from Romania we found a very\r\nhigh prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency whatever the cut-off used for\r\ndefinition.
  • Endocrine Care

    Shao HJ, Li J, He XQ, Liu N, Li YH, Yan JJ, Qu XL, Yuan XY

    Prevalence of Nontoxic Nodular Goiter After a Nearly Two-Decade Universal Salt Iodization in a Littoral Region of Shandong Province, China

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2016 12(1): 43-46 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2016.43

    Introduction. With the introduction of iodized salt, more and more people are exposed to iodine sufficiency in some regions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of nontoxic nodular goiter (NTNG) in the littoral region with high iodine supply after a nearly twodecade universal salt iodization. Subjects and Methods. Eight hundred and thirtyfive participants (from 25~65 years; males 421 and females 414) were invited for the study from Huan-cui District of Weihai City, Shandong Province from January 2013 to September 2014. All participants were inspected and diagnosed by endocrinologists according to the thyroid function tests and the thyroid gland imaging. After the normal diet of three days, the urine samples of the participants were collected between 8:00AM and 9:00AM and the urinary iodine (UI) concentrations were analyzed using Urinary Iodide Test Kit. Results. The overall prevalence of NTNG in the region was 40.1%, and different prevalence occurred in the different age ranges (p<0.01). The prevalence of NTNG was 32.51%, 37.44%, 49.70%, 58.57 and 74.77% in the age group of ≤ 30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and >60 years, respectively. Meanwhile, the prevalence of NTNG in women (42.08%) was higher than that in men (34.29%, p<0.05). The median of UI concentrations were 139.4μg/L and 101.5μg/L for the group with NTNG and without NTNG, respectively (p<0.01). However, there was no significant difference in UI concentrations among the groups with different age ranges (p>0.05), and statistical difference was not observed for UI concentrations between women and men (p>0.05). Intriguingly, higher UI concentrations were found in the group with larger thyroid size (p<0.01). Conclusion. The iodine excess can lead to the high occurrence of nodular goiter in the littoral region, and individual UI concentration detection is recommended for the iodine nutritional status analysis among normal people when Universal Salt Iodization (USI) continues to be implemented in the region.
  • Endocrine Care

    Dong Q, Liu X, Wang F, Xu Y, Liang C, Du W, Gao G

    Dynamic Changes of TRAb and TPOAb after Radioiodine Therapy in Graves’ Disease

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2017 13(1): 72-76 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2017.72

    Context. To analyze the dynamic changes of serum thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) in Graves’ disease (GD) patients before and after radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment and to investigate if TRAb and TPOAb play a role in the occurrence of early hypothyroidism after 131I therapy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Subjects and Methods. A total of 240 patients newly diagnosed with GD were selected to study. A clinical and laboratory assessment was performed before and at 3, 6, and 12 months after 131I therapy. Chemiluminescent immunoassays were used to detect serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and TPOAb concentration. Radio-receptor assay was used to measure serum TRAb concentration. According to the early onset of hypothyroidism in a year after RAI therapy, patients were divided into early hypothyroidism group (group A) and non-early hypothyroidism group (group B). Results. In both groups, serum TRAb and TPOAb increased at 3 months, reached the highest level at 6 months and returned to the baseline at 12 months after RAI therapy. TRAb showed a significant difference between the two groups at 6 months (P<0.01). Serum TPOAb in group A was higher than that in group B before and at 3, 6, 12 months after RAI therapy (P<0.05). Conclusions. Serum TRAb and TPOAb are closely related to the occurrence of the early hypothyroidism, and play an important role in judging prognosis after 131I treatment in Graves’ disease.
  • Case Report

    Grigore M, Vulpoi C, Preda C, Martiniuc V, Vasiliu I, Gorduza V

    Using HD live Technology to Diagnose Turner Syndrome in the First Trimester of Pregnancy. Case Reports

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2015 11(1): 93-98 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2015.93

    Abstract Introduction. Turner syndrome, a genetic disorder with an exclusively feminine phenotype, is caused by complete or partial X monosomy in some or all cells. Although the condition is usually diagnosed after birth, now, it is possible to detect the syndrome prenatally. Case reports. We present two cases of Turner syndrome diagnosed during the first trimester of pregnancy. The condition was suspected because of several ultrasound signs and was confirmed in both cases after an invasive prenatal technique. In one case, the fluorescent in situ hybridization technique was applied. In the other case, the chromosomal anomaly was detected using the G banding technique. Threedimensional ultrasound and HDlive technology were extremely useful in helping the patients to better understand the fetal pathology and accept an invasive procedure as a final step in establishing the diagnosis. Conclusion. These cases demonstrate the importance of using ultrasound as a screening method to detect suspected cases of Turner syndrome, however, the disorder needs to be confirmed with chromosomal analysis after performing an invasive prenatal technique.
  • Case Report

    Liu C, Zhang H, Li X

    Subclinical Cushing’s syndrome, renal carcinoma, adrenal adenoma, adrenal incidentaloma.

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2020 16(1): 97-102 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2020.97

    Context. Patients with renal malignancies present high risk of adrenal hyperplasia and adenoma, and part of these are primary lesions, mostly non-functional. Here we presented a case diagnosed as primary adrenal adenoma with autonomous cortisol secretion accompanied by homolateral renal cell carcinoma. Case presentation. A 79-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of a left adrenal mass, with a past medical history of severe hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. On examination, no clinical signs of cushingoid features were found. Biochemical measurements showed plasma cortisol was 12.77 μg/dL and was not suppressed by 1 mg dexamethasone (DXM) overnight test (13.6 μg/dL). The contrast CT scan presented a 2.2 cm diameter adrenal mass and revealed, unfortunately, a hyperdense mass at the middle-upper pole of the left kidney. Laparoscopic nephrectomy with left adrenalectomy was performed and pathological examination indicated a final diagnosis of benign adrenocortical adenoma and renal clear cell carcinoma. At 2 months postoperatively, without replacement treatment of cortisol, a recovery of circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion was detected, indicated recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Conclusions. Patients with renal cancer might be accompanied with functional adrenal adenoma. Therefore, screening for adrenal function should be recommended in patients with renal tumors and/or adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Case Report

    Grigorie D, Buslei R., Sucaliuc A., Fahlbusch R

    Gonadotroph Adenoma with Increased Serum Gonadotropin Levels in a Patient with Longstanding Klinefelter Syndrome

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2014 10(1): 121-127 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2014.121

    Prolonged target gland failure causes pituitary hyperplasia, but rarely, secondary hyperplasias develop into autonomous neoplasms. We report herein a rare example of gonadotroph adenoma arising in a patient with prolonged hypogonadism due to Klinefelter syndrome. A pituitary macroadenoma with suprasellar extension was discovered incidentally by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in search for the cause of chronic saliva retention. His pre-operative serum concentrations of both luteinizing hormone (LH) and mostly follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were distinctly higher than normal, as expected, but the levels decreased after complete removal of the tumor, suggesting partial secretion of gonadotropins by the tumor. The surgically removed tissue showed a typical pituitary adenoma with distinct immunoreactivity for FSH (intense, homogeneous) and LH (scattered). In the fragmented parts of adjacent gland tissue, no hormone producing cell hyperplasia or presence of gonadal deficiency cells were detectable. In conclusion, our case is the description of a rare example of gonadotropin producing pituitary adenoma (FSH and LH) with increased serum levels of both gonadotropins in a patient with untreated Klinefelter syndrome.
  • General Endocrinology

    Zhao LF, Iwasaki Y, Han BL, Wang J, Zhang Y, Han J, Liu GY, Jiang X

    Triiodothyronine Activates Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase 3 via AGGTCA-Like-Direct-Repeat-4 Type Thyroid Hormone Response Element

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2020 16(2): 129-135 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2020.129

    Background. Thyroid hormone participates in lipid metabolism regulation. However, the effects on triacyleride or triacylglycerol metabolism are complex and not fully clarified yet. In this study, we try to identify novel thyroid hormone-targeting lipogenic metabolic genes and analyze their molecular regulative mechanism. Method. Thirty-five promoters of twenty-nine human lipogenic regulative enzyme genes were constructed into pXP1 luciferase reporter plasmid (PFK2/FBP2-luc) and transfected into HeGP2 cells, respectively. Gene expression induced by triiodothyronine (T3) was detected by luciferase assay. The T3-activated gene promoter was then analyzed by sequence analysis, deletion and mutation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Results. After 10 nM T3 stimulation for 36 h, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, Glycerol- 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) 3, and 1-acylglycerol-3- phosphate O-acyltransferase (AGPAT) 2 were significantly activated, respectively. A AGGTCA-like-direct-repeat-4 consensus thyroid hormone response element (DR4-TRE)- like sequence was found in the GPAT3 promoter, which was then verified to be necessary for T3-induced GPAT3 activation by gene deletion and mutation analysis. EMSA further identified that T3-thyroid receptor (TR) α-retinoid-X receptor (RXR) complex directly bound on the GPAT3 promoter. Conclusion. Triiodothyronine could activate the GPAT3 through DR4-TRE-like sequence binding to participate in lipogenic regulation. AGPAT2 may be another thyroid hormone target enzyme.