The International Journal of Romanian Society of Endocrinology / Registered in 1938

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  • Images in Endocrinology

    Danila R, Livadariu R, Stefanescu C, Ciobanu D, Ionescu L

    Radioguided Mediastinal Parathyroidectomy in a Patient with Persistent Renal Hyperparathyroidism

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2017 13(4): 514-514 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2017.514

  • Endocrine Care

    Atalay H, Boyuk B, Ates M, Guzel S, Celebi A, Ekizoglu I

    Red Cell Distribution Width and Acute Complications of Diabetes

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2018 14(4): 514-519 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2018.514

    Context. Red cell distribution width (RDW) has been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), however data in relation to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic acidosis (HONK) remains unclear. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between RDW, MCV, and RDW/MVC values and acute complications in T2DM. Patients and Methods. RDW was measured in 90 T2DM patients (30 DKA, 30 HONK and 30 T2DM without acute complications). Clinical variables were analyzed by One –Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson analysis with SPSS software. Diagnostic screening tests and ROC curve analysis determined the cut-off point of MCV,RDW and RDW/MCV values. Results. DKA patients had higher levels of plasma glucose (524.20±201.43mg/dL, p<0.001), HbA1c (10.73±2.29%, p<0.001), osmotic pressure (310.32 mosm/L, p<0.001), RDW (14.61±1.75g/L, p<0.01), and the RDW/MCV ratio (0.17±0.04%, p<0.01), compared to HONK patients. RDW/MCV cut-off value was 0.15 with 90% sensitivity 50% specifity these values for only MCV were 76.67%-70%, for only RDW were 76.67%- 63.33% respectively. The area under curve values for the ability to reflect DKA for RDW and the RDW/MCV ratio were 0.708 and 0.766, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions. RDW and RDW/MCV ratio were found associated with DKA and valuable in predicting DKA. However these parameters were not valuable in predicting HONK.
  • Notes & Comments

    Lozanov B, Gorcheva D, Lozanov LB, Koleva V, Refetoff S

    Insufficiency of Levothyroxine Therapy in Autoimmune Hypothyroidism: Effect of Glucocorticoid Administration

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2017 13(4): 515-518 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2017.515

    Objective. The non-effectiveness of levothyroxine administration in hypothyroidism depends on many factors and mechanisms influencing its absorption in small intestins or bounding of circulating hormone with different active molecules. Methods. Thyroid hormones, TSH, rT3, TGl, TPOAb, TG-Ab, were measured using commercially available assays. For anti-T4ab, radioiodine-labeled T4 was added to the patient’s serum and the IgG fraction subsequently precipitated by addition of 15% polyethylene glycol. Background was determined by testing 100 control sera from individuals without autoimmune thyroid disease. Results. A 42-year old woman (71.5 kg) with Hashimoto thyroiditis receiving levothyroxine (L-T4) 150 μg and liothyronine (L-T3) 37.5 μg was admitted to the hospital with clinical data of hypothyroidism, TSH-23.8 mU/L, FT4- 6.18 pmol/L (n.range 9-19 pmol/L), TPO-Ab 696 IU/mL, TGAb 818 IU/mL, circulating T4- antibodies positive. She has a good adherence to medication, malabsorption or administration of other drugs were excluded. L-T4 absorption test revealed 44% increase of serum FT4 at 120 min after ingestion of 150 mcg L-T4 (2.1 mcg/kg). Methylprednisolone pulses of 500 mg i.v. administered in three consecutive days at equal doses of L-T4/L-T3 resulted in a rapid increase of FT4 to 14.5 pmol/L, fall of TSH to 0.18 mU/L and decrease of anti-T4 antibodies to referent range; TPO-Ab and TG-Ab also decreased significantly. Monotherapy by 150 mcg L-T4 was continued in the next three months. A recurrence of hypothyroidism with increase of circulating T4-Ab was observed 100 days later. New administrations of methylprednisolone two pulses of 500 mg revealed a similar normalization of thyroid hormones and anti-T4 antibodies. Conclusion. The data showed that T4-antibodies might be a cause of insufficient effects of levothyroxine therapy in autoimmune hypothyroidism. This could be overcome by glucocorticoid administration probably resulting in FT4 release from circulating immune complexes.
  • Notes & Comments

    Valea A, Silaghi C.A, Ghervan C.M.V., Silaghi H., Florea M., Simionescu B., Bizo A., Cornean RE

    Morbid Child Obesity with Possible Rohhadnet=Rohhad Syndrome. Case Report

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2014 10(3): 515-524 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2014.515

    Background. ROHHADNET syndrome is a pleiotropic disorder defined by rapid onset of obesity, hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine dysfunctions, alveolar hypoventilation and hypothalamic autonomic dysregulation and neural tumors. Case presentation. We report the case of a 5.8-year-old female patient with rapid onset of obesity and growth arrest, hypercortisolism, hyperprolactinemia, low IGF1, severe hypernatremia (with no signs of diabetes insipidus) and chronic hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Additional symptoms included sleep apnea and two episodes of cardiopulmonary arrest after mild sedation. Brain MRI, chest and abdominal enhanced CT scans were all negative. As no tumors were revealed at the time of diagnosis, ROHHAD syndrome was suspected. Treatment with potassium bicarbonate was initiated in an attempt to control both the severe hypernatremia and chronic hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Patient developed dilated cardiomyopathy and kaliopenic nephropathy. Conclusion. The presence of dilated cardiomyopathy is in keeping with only one other reported case, while the severe hypernatremia joined by hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis seen in our patient has not been presented previously. Although it is a very rare medical condition, ROHHAD syndrome has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of any case with rapid onset obesity associated with hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine dysfunctions, and alveolar hypoventilation.
  • General Endocrinology

    Yang G, Chen S, Ding P, Jiang G, Fu C, Hu G, Feng X, Zhu W

    Pioglitazone Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Insulinresistant KKAy Mice: Involvement of a PPAR?-Dependent Signaling Pathway

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2013 9(4): 515-524 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2013.515

    Aim. To explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of pioglitazone (pio) on insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant KKAy mice. Methods. Sixteen eight-week-old male KKAy mice were randomly assigned to two groups based on body weight: an insulin resistance model group and a pioglitazone treatment group (hereafter referred to as the pio-group). Eight male C57BL/6J mice were used as an insulin resistance control group. Mice in all three groups were fed an AIN-93G diet, and pio was added to the diet in the pio-group. After twelve weeks of treatment, blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were measured. ELISA was used to determine adiponectin and leptin in serum. A real time PCR assay was used to detect the mRNA of adiponectin and leptin in epididymal adipose tissue. A Western blot assay was used to analyze protein expression and/ or phosphorylation levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue.Results. The results showed that Pio treatment may effectively reduce levels of blood glucose and serum insulin, improve insulin tolerance and glucose tolerance, increase serum adiponectin, decrease serum leptin, and enhance mRNA expression of adiponectin in epididymal adipose tissue. Furthermore, with pio treatment, protein expression of PPARγ and phosphorylation levels of IRS1 and AKT were increased in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue. Conclusion. These results suggested that Pio intervention may ameliorate insulin resistance and improve insulin sensitivity in KKAy mice, which may be due to an increase of PPARγ and further activation of the insulin signaling transduction pathway (IRS1 and AKT) in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue of KKAy mice.
  • Case Series

    Unal MC, Gungor Semiz G, Ozdogan O, Altay C, Caliskan Yildirim E, Semiz HS, Comlekci A, Akinci B

    Nivolumab Associated Endocrine Abnormalities: Challenging Cases from a Reference Clinic

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2022 18(4): 516-522 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2022.516

    Background. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of advanced cancers. Antibodies directed against programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) interrupt the ability of the cancerous cell to depress the immune system. Methods and results. We report three patients who developed different endocrine abnormalities after treatment with nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against PD-1. First, we report a 76-year-old male presenting with generalized fat loss after treatment with nivolumab which predominantly affected his face and trunk. Second, we described the development of thyroiditis that presented with thyrotoxicosis and the expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb). Finally, we observed the emergence of adrenal insufficiency due to hypophysitis in another case. Conclusion. Although immune checkpoint inhibitors are an effective anticancer treatment modality, adverse effects are evident that can affect the endocrine system. These adverse events may relate to different endocrine systems that include the thyroid and pituitary glands. Also, acquired generalized lipodystrophy should be suspected in patients developing unusual fat loss after treatment with ICIs.
  • Case Report

    Das DV, Baro A

    Guidance to the Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Management of Resistance Grave’s Disease in Pregnancy

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2021 17(4): 517-520 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2021.517

    Resistant Graves’ disease in pregnancy is a rare entity. The clinical situation poses immense difficulty to the treating endocrinologist and obstetrician in optimizing maternal and fetal heath. No guidelines till date are available to manage resistant Grave’s disease in pregnancy. We hereby present a case series on resistant Grave’s in pregnancy and our institute experience in managing this rare and challenging clinical entity. Definitive management is total thyroidectomy in second trimester. Higher doses of ATDs and betablockers may have its fetopathic effects. Use of immunosuppressive agents are not advised in pregnancy to suppress the TRAb titre. Steroid therapy may be used as an adjuvant to permissible doses of anti-thyroid medications to curb the thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy. An alternate fetal friendly ATD is not available to add on to existing ATDs. TRAb estimation in maternal blood is mandatory. Mothers need frequent monitoring of cardiac status and need to avoid factors that can cause cardiac decompensation. Fetal surveillance includes growth monitoring and biophysical profile at nearby intervals, helps to ascertain the effects of excess thyroid hormones, TRAb and anti-thyroid drugs. Immediate neonatal cord blood screening for thyroid abnormalities is necessary. Maternal and fetal management in such a clinical situation is multidisciplinary.
  • Book Review

    Baciu IF

    Breast Cancer Update

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2012 8(3): 517-518 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2012.517

  • Case Report

    Kulshreshtha B, Sharma LK, Sharma N, Singh Y, Aggarwal A, Dharmshaktu P, Yadav R, Dutta D

    Octreotide and Cinacalcet Have Limited Role in Managing Surgically Incurable Tumor Induced Osteomalacia

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2015 11(4): 517-523 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2015.517

    Context and objective. Somatostatin analogues and cinacalcet have been suggested to have some role in managing hypophosphatemia. This report highlights challenges in managing surgically incurable tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) with somatostatin analogues and cinacalcet. Patient and methods. A twenty-two year old patient with severe osteomalacia was diagnosed to have TIO due to left hemipelvis tumor (June 2013). Partial surgical removal of tumor (due to its proximity to neurovascular bundles), led to transient remission for 6 weeks. Clinical worsening in spite of maximum tolerable phosphate and calcitriol dose led to trial of octreotide. Acute improvement in phosphate following subcutaneous octreotide 100 mcg was the basis for use of long acting depot octreotide, which was associated with maximal improvement for 4 months, followed by reduced efficacy. Repeated MRI revealed an increase in residual tumor size. Reevaluation revealed very a high parathyroid hormone. Cinacalcet titrated to 90 mg/day induced hypoparathyroidism, improved hypophosphatemia but caused symptomatic hypocalcemia. Cinacalcet at lower doses (30mg/day), though well tolerated, was less effective in improving hypophosphatemia. There was a near 10-fold reduction (2406 to 246RU/ml) in C-terminal FGF-23 levels with cinacalcet. Reduction in phosphate and calcitriol requirements with cinacalcet may contribute to decreased FGF-23. There was no decrease in tumor size. Conclusion. Octreotide and cinacalcet are effective in controlling hypophosphatemia over short periods. Progressive nature of TIO leading to an increased disease severity, tachyphylaxis may explain decreased efficacy of octreotide, higher cinacalcet requirement, poor tolerability, thus limiting their role in long-term management of TIO.
  • Case Report

    Pujia R, Russo D, Guadagno E, Bartone L, Trapasso R, Piro E, Foti D, Brunetti A

    Non-Functional Pituitary Tumors: a Misleading Presentation of an Intrasellar Plasmacytoma

    Acta Endo (Buc) 2019 15(4): 518-521 doi: 10.4183/aeb.2019.518

    Intrasellar plasmacytoma is a rare pituitary tumor, which originates from monoclonal plasma cells in a single lesion. Knowledge of its features comes from case reports only. Here, we present an interesting case of a 77-year-old woman with a presumptive diagnosis of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma, as based on both clinical and radiological examinations. Following endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery, the definitive diagnosis of intrasellar plasmacytoma was made by immunohistochemical analysis of the sellar mass. Intrasellar plasmacytoma is rare, but it should be evaluated in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary mass due to its different therapeutic approach and prognosis, since it can frequently progress to multiple myeloma.